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Foreword Introduction LESSON 1: Getting to Know Each Other Exercises LESSON 2: At the Campus Exercises LESSON 3: Lectures Exercises LESSON 4: At the Mall Exercises LESSON 5: Prices Exercises LESSON 6: What Time? Exercises LESSON 7: Where? Exercises LESSON 8: In the Street Exercises
vi vii 1 4 9 12 17 20 25 27 33 35 39 43 47 52 57 60
LESSON 9: Buying a Fan Exercises LESSON 10: Clothes Exercises LESSON 11: In the Kampong Exercises LESSON 12: Law Lectures Exercises LESSON 13: The Poor Exercises LESSON 14: Smoking Exercises LESSON 15: The 'Taman Mini' Exercises LESSON 16: TV Dramas Exercises LESSON 17: Visit to an Expat Family Exercises LESSON 18: The Interview Exercises LESSON 19: What Will We Watch? Exercises LESSON 20: Twilight in Jakarta Exercises LESSON 21: Going to the Doctor
65 67 71 74 79 81 85 88 93 96 101 105 109 113 119 123 127 131 135 138 143 147 151 155 159
163 169 173 179 LESSON 23: A Trip to Yogyakarta 184 Exercises 189 LESSON 24: To the Market 193 Exercises 197 LESSON 25: National Days 201 Exercises 205 LESSON 26: Wall Lizards 209 Exercises 213 LESSON 27: Demonstrations 217 Exercises 221 LESSON 28: The Secret Trumpet 226 Exercises APPENDIX: How Do You Say It In Indonesian? 230 Translations 250 Listening Comprehension 260 Glossary of Key Grammatical Terms 267 Exercises
LESSON 22: International Relations Exercises
Basic Indonesian is an entirely new book. It has been made to fill the need for a one-volume coursebook which can be used for either self-study or classroom use by those who are keen to make a start on mastering the Indonesian language. The users we have in mind might be students in universities or schools outside Indonesia, or expatriates living in Indonesia. The Stories are set in Jakarta (apart from an excursion to Yogyakarta), are original and describe realistic situations, contain some interesting cultural sidelights, and display a lively mix of narrative and dialogue. Bearing in mind that our readers will be adult learners, we have also included clear Language notes, which, we hope, will explain the grammar and build a solid foundation for further steps forward in the study of Indonesian. The authors are Stuart Robson, formerly Associate Professor of Indonesian at Monash University (Melbourne, Australia), and Yacinta Kurniasih, a native speaker with very extensive experience in teaching Indonesian, now at
Monash University. These two have a vision of language as a means of bringing people closer together, by enabling them to communicate — this isn't just a matter of exchanging information, but also a means of exploring our common humanity, by including some of the thoughts and feelings we share. Language should, we believe, help us to understand 'what makes people tick'. The photos were taken by Benedicta Kuspartini in Jakarta. We are very grateful to her for all her efforts to get them right. Terima kasih banyak, Tini! Most importantly, thanks to Eric Oey (CEO of Periplus/Tuttle), for patiently enduring the delays in the writing process and encouraging us to continue, and to Nancy Goh for formatting and editing the final product.
If you decide to study a language, your study will be all the more meaningful if you know something about it, beyond memorizing vocabulary and analyzing sentence structures. You will certainly want to know where the language came from, and what it is related to. So at the beginning of our journey we offer a little information to whet your appetite. In Indonesian, the Indonesian language is called Bahasa Indonesia, which means 'the language of Indonesia'. It has this name because it possesses the official status, under the Constitution, of national language of the Republic of Indonesia. In other words, this language is taught and used from one end of the country to the other, and in this way serves as the 'language of unity'. So it has an important political as well as practical function, providing a means of communication between all the various groups within the country. As you will probably know, Indonesia consists of a large number of islands, located in Southeast Asia (see Map). Each of these islands is home to different ethnic groups, large and small, and each of these has its own language. These are separate languages, not dialects of Indonesian. They represent the vehicle of valuable cultural traditions, and form part of an individual's identity. So these languages are people's 'home' language, and exist alongside the national language, which children learn at school. It is worth noting the interesting relationship between these two, and the way bilingualism works.
So where did Indonesian come from, and how did it achieve its present position? Indonesian is a variety of the Malay language, that is, it is Malay which has been adopted and adapted for a special purpose, namely to serve as the national language of Indonesia, a nation which only declared its independence on 17 August 1945. This shows clearly that there must have been some important historical developments prior to this time, and suggests that a knowledge of the history of the region will be useful. Malay is a language used in various parts of Southeast Asia in different forms. It is the daily language of the inhabitants of parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan, as well as the Riau Archipelago, for example, and the Malay inhabitants of West Malaysia, and also the sultanate of Brunei and the Malays of Singapore. In view of these connections, a knowledge of Indonesian is useful for learning Malaysian, and vice versa, although they are by no means identical and display significant differences, despite the similarities and shared spelling system. From its beginnings in the western part of the
Archipelago, Malay became a trade language, and as such was used by the first Europeans, the Portuguese, who came in search of spices in the 16th century, soon followed by the Dutch. From their headquarters at Batavia, the present capital of Indonesia, Jakarta, the Dutch gradually extended their control over what now constitutes the territory of Indonesia, and for administrative purposes they used Malay for contacts with the 'natives'. In this way, Malay was already fulfilling a function as a language of unity in the 19th century, and was being regulated by Dutch administrators and scholars. The early 20th century saw the rise of the nationalist movement in Indonesia and a desire for independence from the Dutch colonial power. In 1928 a declaration was made to recognize 'one country, Indonesia', and 'one people, the Indonesian people', who 'uphold the language of unity, Indonesian'. As a further boost, during the Japanese occupation (1942-45) Dutch was not allowed to be used, and so Indonesian (at that time still called Malay) was used, and a start was made on developing it to fulfil all the functions of a modern language, capable of being used not only for trade and administration, but also for all branches of education and science. Indonesian has continued to be cultivated and developed since the end of the colonial period, and today it is the task of a government office, the National Language Development Centre, to promote the use of 'good and correct' Indonesian. Modern Indonesian is the result of the convergence of several streams, for example the variety used by the print media and in government offices, 'school' Malay as promoted by the government printing house Balai Pustaka, and the colloquial of the streets and markets as used in inter-ethnic communication. It is a lively language, and we see innovations being introduced by journalists, as well as the influence of the 'Jakarta colloquial' in speech. Malay, and hence also Indonesian, is a member of the Austronesian language-family, more specifically the western Malayo-Polynesian sub-branch of this family. This
means that it is related to all the other (regional) languages of western Indonesia, as well as to other members of the family, found in the Philippines, in Melanesia and Polynesia, Madagascar, and even the aboriginal languages of Taiwan. But it is not related to important languages of mainland Southeast Asia, such as Thai, Cambodian, Vietnamese or Burmese, and also not to the East Asian languages Chinese, Japanese or Korean, or any Indian language. This gives an idea of its place among the languages of Asia. However, as one would expect, we do find large numbers of loanwords in Indonesian. Ones which we readily recognize are the result of the process of modernization and globalization, and are likely to come from Dutch and English. It is curious that a number of terms in Indonesian (in contrast to Malaysian) are 'loantranslations' from Dutch, that is, can be traced to a Dutch original by a process of translation, instead of literal borrowing. An example is the word for 'vacuum cleaner', pengisap debu, 'dust-sucker', which corresponds to Dutch stofzuiger — it doesn't look the same, but also means 'dust-sucker'. Malay and Indonesian also contain many loanwords from Arabic, the language of Islam, which provided terms introduced as part of Islamic culture, and at an even deeper level there are loans from Sanskrit (the ancient language of India), some dating from the pre-Islamic period, and others very recent. Indonesian has also absorbed a large number of words from Javanese, some colloquial and others constructed from elements of classical Javanese, on the one hand because of the preponderance of speakers with Javanese as a first language, and on the other from a need to create new words or euphemisms. An example of the latter is tuna netra, which means 'whose eyes are inadequate', and sounds better than the more basic buta 'blind'. Taking an interest in the origins and particular meanings of words makes them easier to remember.
Somebody who is approaching the study of Indonesian 'from the outside', either as a visitor or student, or as an expatriate working in a business or similar environment, will want to communicate effectively and to have access to various channels such as the print media and TV. In particular, the active use of the language, speaking and writing, will require you to develop a 'feeling' for what is right or appropriate in a certain setting: people will appreciate your efforts if you use correct grammar, and can also adjust your style to take account of who you are speaking or writing to, what the context is, and how they feel. In short, getting the words, pronunciation and constructions right shows that you value the language and its speakers, and your cultural sensitivity will admit you to people's hearts and homes.
The Development of Modern Indonesian From the moment in 1928 when the Indonesian youth movement took its oath to uphold the Indonesian language, the leading figures began thinking about ways in which they could translate this into action. The first Language Congress was held in Solo (Central Java) on 25-28 June 1938, and after hearing a paper given by Amir Sjarifoeddin on 'Accommodating foreign words and concepts into the Indonesian language' the congress passed a resolution to adopt foreign words for sciences, and that this work should be done carefully, by submitting it to a body. Although the formulation is still fairly vague, under this point we can already see what was to become a preoccupation of language planners and practitioners, namely the best way to prepare the Indonesian language for its function as a language capable of being used in all branches of science. Obviously there was an assumption that Malay was not yet developed enough to be able to do this—an idea that may seem odd from the perspective of the 21st century. There was an assumption that foreign words would need to be borrowed in order to create the new terms; it would be Dutch words that the intellectuals
turned to, as these were considered appropriate for anything modern or scientific. Nothing more could be done for the time being, until the period of the Japanese occupation. At the request of the Indonesians, the Japanese Army's Office of Education set up a Language Committee on 20 October 1942, chaired by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana. The Committee had three sections: Grammar, Testing new words, and Terms. Takdir and his friends worked away at these projects undisturbed, till they were closed down on 30 April 1945 because of nationalist activities. However, the results of their work were published shortly after the Occupation, in the form of two small volumes. The first appeared in 1945 as the Kamoes Istilah I Asing-Indonesia (Dictionary of Terms I: Foreign-Indonesian), and the second in 1947 as Kamoes Istilah II Indonesia-Asing (Dictionary of Terms
II: Indonesian-Foreign). In this context, 'foreign' meant Dutch, and the new terms that were discussed and approved by the Committee were sought first in Malay, and after that in other Indonesian languages, and finally in Sanskrit or Arabic. The total number was 7,000, and the terms were very technical. Following the capitulation of the Japanese and the proclamation of the Republic two days later on 17 August 1945, a period of chaos ensued. The work of the committee was taken up again but it had the opportunity to meet only once, on 21 July 1947, before returning Dutch forces seized its offices, and the Republic moved its capital to Yogyakarta, where it held off the Dutch for some time, during the period known as the Revolution. As a Dutch scholar, G.W.J. Drewes, remarked in 1948, Malay was teeming with new words that could not be found in the dictionaries, but were to be read in the daily newspapers. They did not come from the Kamoes Istilah, but most likely could be found in the Javanese dictionary, as either colloquial or literary terms. If before the war there
was a Sumatran period in the development of Malay, then after the war it went through a Javanese period. This was attributed to the removal of the seat of the Republic from Batavia to Yogyakarta and the spread of terms via the press of Central Java. The system of spelling was the one inherited from the colonial period, but the first Minister of Education, Soewandi, initiated an improvement as early as 19 March 1948, with the replacement of the digraph oe with u. It was more efficient to use one letter for one sound, and the letter u had not been used in the previous system; furthermore, it was a nationalistic step. However, many people still use oe instead of u in the spelling of their name. A Balai Bahasa (Language Centre) was set up by the Republican administration in Yogyakarta in March 1948, under the Minister of Education and Culture (and the building still exists). This would be the first in a series of several institutions, all with the aim of cultivating and developing language, leading up to the one that exists in Jakarta today. After the Transfer of Sovereignty from the Netherlands to Indonesia at the end of 1949, and the takeover by the Republic in Jakarta, the Balai Bahasa now came under a new institute, the Lembaga Bahasa dan Budaya (Institute of Language and Culture), which was set up in 1952 as part of the Fakultas Sastra (Faculty of Arts) at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta. In 1959 this was changed to become the Lembaga Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan (Institute of Language and Literature), under the Department of Education and Culture. Then on 3 November 1966 it was changed again, to become the Direktorat Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan (Directorate of Language and Literature). In 1969 it became the Lembaga Bahasa Nasional (National Language Institute), and finally, on 1 April 1975, it became
the Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, or Pusat Bahasa for short, normally translated as 'National Language Development Centre,' under the DirectorGeneral of Culture. This has grown and flourished, and today continues to fulfil an important function in the cultivation and development of language in Indonesia. Alongside the institutional developments, there were also important publications in the field of language. Again going back to 1948, a monthly magazine appeared, founded and edited by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, called Pembina Bahasa Indonesia (Cultivator of Indonesian). This contained articles on questions of language for the information of readers on such matters as grammar, correct usage of words, questions from readers, general articles, and even language exercises. A proportion of the articles seems to have been written by Takdir himself. In September 1950 it had a print run of 15,000 copies, suggesting that it was widely read. It ceased publication around 1957. Takdir had been writing essays on the Indonesian language since the founding of the independent literary journal Pujangga Baru (New Poet) in 1933, as well as fiction, the novel Layar Terkembang (With Sails Unfurled, 1939) being the best known (see Figure). In 1957 Takdir's articles were collected and published as a useful volume under the title Dari Perjuangan dan Pertumbuhan Bahasa Indonesia (On the Struggle and Growth of Indonesian, reprinted in 1988).
Meanwhile, a more substantial journal, Bahasa dan Budaya (Language and Culture), was being published by the Lembaga Bahasa dan Budaya, commencing when this was still attached to the Fakultas Sastra of the University of Indonesia, beginning in 1952, and continuing up to the present day as a publication of the Pusat Bahasa. In the 1950s a Komisi Istilah (Terminology Committee) was again set up, probably inspired by the one that existed during the Japanese Occupation. Its results were listed as regular appendices to Bahasa dan Budaya. All these lists are from Dutch to Indonesian; the intention was to ensure that there existed Indonesian equivalents for every kind of technical term. The words
were divided into sections, for example animal husbandry, military matters, mathematics and physics, education, aviation, agriculture and engineering. Apart from terminology, another matter that continued to occupy the minds of Indonesians during the 1950s was spelling. The Language Congress held in Medan in 1954 urged changes, and ideas began to be exchanged with scholars of Malay in Malaya and Singapore. The Federation of Malaya became independent from the British on 31 August 1957, and in April 1959 a cultural agreement between Indonesia and Malaya was signed, to include matters of language such as spelling. A delegation went to Jakarta and met Sukarno. A joint system of spelling would be created, to be called the Ejaan Melindo, but no details were ever announced. Instead, history intervened in the form of Confrontation, when Malaysia became the enemy. Furthermore, politically and economically the early 1960s were extremely difficult years for Indonesia, and people had little time or inclination to think about little things like spelling. The question only arose again in 1966, after the establishment of the Orde Baru (New Order) by Suharto. A spelling commission, chaired by Anton Moeliono then of the Lembaga Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan, was set up in May 1966, and a draft proposal was ready by August. This was submitted to the Malaysians, and was agreed and published in 1967. After much debate, it became official on 17 August 1972, and a similar proclamation was made by the Malaysian government, so that both countries would now use the same system of spelling. This new spelling is called the ejaan yang disempurnakan ('perfected spelling'), and the details were set out in a little guide called Ejaan Baru. The main effect was that in Indonesia the former dj, j and tj became j, y and c respectively, while in Malaysia only the former ch became c. At this point, it is interesting to look at Malaysia, as
there has been a similar concern with language development there, although this arose at a somewhat later date due to the historical circumstances. An institution called the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka was established in June 1956 as a small government bureau under the Department of Education in the pre-independence Federation of Malaya. After Independence in August 1957, the new Federal Constitution declared Malay as the National and Official Language, and in 1959 the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Ordinance was enacted, making the Dewan an autonomous statutory body under the Ministry of Education. Exactly ten years after independence an Act of Parliament, called the National Language Act 1967, was passed, naming the National Language the sole official language of the country, replacing English. The Dewan has had many activities, including an extensive publication program. For example, it published a monthly magazine, called Dewan Bahasa. This contains lists of new technical terms, translated from English into Malay. These were formulated by terminology committees in various fields. The Pusat Bahasa, which has its headquarters at Rawamangun in Jakarta, also engages in a wide range of activities. These cover both the Indonesian and regional languages, literature in Indonesian and regional languages, lexicography and terminology. In order to implement this program, it has an extensive program of publications, and provides information to the public on the correct use of Indonesian. An important example of its work in the field of lexicography is the great monolingual Indonesian dictionary, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, a very complete and reliable work produced by a large team and first published by Balai Pustaka in 1988. An example of a publication in the area of terminology is the Pedoman Pengindonesiaan Nama dan Kata Asing (Guide to the Indonesianization of
Names and Foreign Words, 1995), which lists English terms with an Indonesian equivalent, divided into seven sections, for business and finance, industry, sport and art, tourism, communications and telecommunications, personal appurtenances, and property. It is interesting to make a comparison with other Southeast Asian languages. In the Philippines an Institute of National Language was set up in 1937, when President Quezon declared Tagalog to be the national language. But much has happened since then. In 1971 President Marcos declared that the national language would be known as Pilipino, and in 1986 the new constitution made Filipino the national language, with the intention to create a broader national language in the future, which would include borrowings from other major languages such as Ilocano, Cebuano, Pangasinan and so on. Meanwhile it would still be based on Tagalog, but Tagalog would eventually be just another regional language. We understand that the debate is ongoing. In Thailand, where there is one main language, Thai, the process of modernization began early with the efforts of HRH Prince Wan Waithayakon Krommun Naradhip Bongspraband, an Oxford graduate and respected diplomat and scholar, who on his return from Europe in 1919 started coining words which were needed for a Thai version of the Civil and Commercial Code, and went on from there. He is said to have created around 300 words, which are now mostly in common use, making use of Pali and Sanskrit. His work in this area has been continued till the present by a Bureau of the Royal Institute, so that Thai has a complete range of terms needed for modern life. The need for new terms grows by the day, and Indonesian keeps pace with this by either creating a new word or by adopting the English. Some examples from the field of information technology can serve to illustrate this. ENGLISH
information technology téknologi informasi net(work)
The Spelling and Sounds of Indonesian Indonesian has a distinctive sound, with lots of soft labial and nasal consonants, and with comparatively more syllables per word than English, so it flows smoothly like a babbling brook.
The writing system Indonesian is written in the familiar roman script (although Malay was once written in the Arabic-Persian script), and this system was originally introduced by the Dutch during the colonial period, although it has been modified since then. The spelling system is regular and predictable, with very few odd cases. We will describe the sounds of Indonesian below, but first introduce the alphabet. This is important, if you have to spell out your name, for example, as the names of the letters are different from English.
The alphabet First we give the letter, and then an approximation of the pronunciation of its name. Note that in a number of cases we have to use the letter é (e acute), as found in French, in order to avoid the English sound 'ay'.
A ah, but short
Q kee, but short
R air, with the 'r' sounded
G gé, like 'gay', not 'gee'! T té H ha
I ee, but short
K kah, but short
These sounds are also important because they turn up frequently in the acronyms of various institutions and concepts in Indonesia. Some examples are:
RI (air-ee) Republik Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia
SD (ess-dé) Sekolah Dasar Primary/Elementary School
SMP (ess-em-pé) Sekolah Menengah Pertama Junior High School
SMU (ess-em-oo) Sekolah Menengah Umum Senior High School One should be especially careful with A and R, as well as C, G, H and K, while Q, V, X and Z are very rare.
The sounds In order to be understood, it is essential to pronounce words correctly. Below we offer a brief description of the sounds of Indonesian, with some examples, beginning with the vowels, and then looking at the consonants.
Stress Indonesian does not have a heavy stress or syllable-accent. So in a multi-syllabic word such as masyarakat above, each part of the word receives an even stress. However, it is also true to say that in words of two syllables the first one gets slightly more stress than the second, except when this contains the mute 'e', in which case the stress moves to the second syllable. But as a general rule we must avoid any tendency to stress the final syllable.
Aims Basic Indonesian is intended for students who are beginning the study of the Indonesian language. We start from the assumption that the reader has never studied Indonesian before - and may never have studied any foreign language, or have much idea about English grammar for that matter. The book is designed as a coursebook. Regarding level, it aims to bring the student from zero to a level equivalent to secondary Year 12, or tertiary First Year level (in the Australian system). This means that it covers a range of word-forms and sentence structures, and
introduces a range of basic vocabulary, and in this way forms a foundation for higher levels and working with more advanced materials. Expressed as objectives, we hope that our students will gain both passive and active skills in key areas, namely:
understand what people say);
Speaking ability (being able to speak and be understood);
Reading comprehension (being able to interpret a simple written passage correctly); and Writing ability (being able to write a simple message using correct language). In the process of achieving this, someone using Indonesian will also need to absorb a certain amount of background information on social, cultural or other matters, bearing in mind that the language does not exist in a vacuum, but is used by people interacting in particular situations. In this connection, we should be aware that with Indonesian, just as with any living language, there are significant variations in the way it is used for different purposes. One finds that the spoken and written languages differ, and both can be shaped to fit what is appropriate, depending on where or to whom we are speaking or writing. Having said this, though, we feel that it is the best method to start out with teaching and learning 'good and correct' Indonesian; slang or sub-standard forms should be avoided at this stage. This means that we aim to teach standard Indonesian, and not what is termed 'Jakarta dialect', although a few examples of colloquial words will be used.
Method of study The book consists of carefully graded materials organized in 28 lessons. Each lesson represents a step forward and introduces new topics and new vocabulary: When studying a lesson, first read through the Story, then consult the Wordlist and Language notes, and then read it through again. Cultural notes are added when necessary. Resist the temptation to look at the Translations (at the end of the book) until you have finished, then you can check. Bear in mind that sometimes other translations are also correct. It is a good method to read the story aloud, rather than just silently. The wordlists can be used for drills, by covering one column and testing yourself, going both ways. We recommend making ample use of the dictionary to double-check meanings, to see what other meanings or forms a word may have, and in some cases to see where it is derived from. This will help in the process of remembering new words, which is, after all, a large part of the study. The Exercises and drills can be used to reinforce and refresh your memory. Don't forget to consult the boxes. Reviews or tests can be inserted after each seven units if required.
Materials This book is complete in itself, but for further reference we suggest: Sneddon, James Niel: Indonesian Reference Grammar (Allen & Unwin, 1996). _____: Understanding Indonesian Grammar (Allen &
Unwin, 2000). It is a good idea to own at least one dictionary. The biggest and the best one is: Stevens, Alan M. and A. Ed. Schmidgall-Tellings: A Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary (Ohio U.P., 2004). And a good two-way dictionary is: Davidsen, Katherine: Compact Indonesian Dictionary: Indonesian-English, English-Indonesian (Tuttle, 2008), or Davidsen, Katherine: Concise Indonesian Dictionary: Indonesian-English, English-Indonesian (Tuttle, 2006). For further reading, see: Robson, Stuart: From Malay to Indonesian; The genesis of a national language (Working Paper 118, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 2002). Robson, Stuart: Welcome to Indonesian (Tuttle, 2004). Sneddon, James: The Indonesian Language: Its history and role in modern society (Sydney: UNW Press, 2003).
Getting to Know Each Other Berkenalan
N.B. These wordlists contain only words that are not discussed in the language notes. apa kabar? What's the news?; how are you? kabar
berkenalan to get to know each other
selamat datang! welcome!
1. As a greeting, we can use selamat with the time of day: pagi for morning, siang for the middle of the day, sore for the late afternoon, and malam for night, thus 'good morning' and so forth. It is best to add a term of address for the recipient, as then our greeting sounds less abrupt: Bu for an older lady, or Pak for an older man. Or else add somebody's name, if you know it. 2. The family (keluarga) is very important; it is the main part of our social context. We should pay attention to 'who's who', especially someone's parents, and note the order of siblings — there are particular terms for them, kakak for elder sibling (regardless of gender), and adik for younger sibling (again regardless of gender). 3. We use the word bapak 'father' for our own father, and ayah for someone else's father. The meaning is the same, but ayah is considered more refined.
The simplest kind of sentence is the 'equational' sentence, in which we say 'A = B'. The first part of this sentence is the topic or 'subject', and the rest is what is being said about it, or the 'predicate'. These slots (A and B) can be filled by a noun or pronoun, either a single word or a group of words. In its simplest form, there is no need to put in a word to indicate the equation ( = ), like the English 'is', 'are' and so on. Examples:
Saya mahasiswa. I am a student. (A) (B)
Here a pronoun, saya, occupies the A slot, and a noun, mahasiswa, occupies the B slot. So the sentence conveys a piece of information about 'I', that I am something, namely a student. There is no word here for 'am' - it would not be right to put one in, so an Englishspeaker should avoid the temptation to supply something in this position.
Itu dosén. That is a lecturer. (A)
In this case, the word itu, that, occupies the A slot; we can regard it as a pronoun, meaning 'that thing, person'. The rest of the sentence explains who that is.
Similarly, we have the word ini, 'this (thing, person)'. There is no word for the English 'is' in this sentence. Before going any further, we should discuss possession. In Indonesian, this is expressed by means of word-order, and not with a word for 'of or 'apostrophe's'. The rule is that the possessor follows the thing possessed. So we can give a noun, and follow it by a pronoun, to say who the thing belongs to, e.g. This is not yet a full sentence; but it could be, if we add a subject:
Ini rumah saya. This is my house. We will talk about personal pronouns again shortly, but can comment here that there are no changes equivalent to 'I-me-my' in English. Finally, you will have noticed that in Indonesian we don't use words like English 'a, an' or 'the'. They are not part of Indonesian grammar, but you do need to supply them when translating from Indonesian to English.
At the Campus Di Kampus
to be born
mi goréng fried noodles
cold orange juice
nasi goréng fried rice
to go along, accompany pulang
car to go home tea
Personal pronouns It will be useful to set out the personal pronouns of Indonesian by means of a table. The advantage of this is that we can reveal the system, and you can see what choices you have when you want to use a pronoun. We have horizontal rows for the three persons: first person is the person speaking (I and we); second person is the person being addressed (you); and the third person is the one being spoken about (he, she, they). Then we have three columns, which list the pronouns as non-formal, neutral or formal. A number of notes follow below, to explain further.
1. The best word to choose for 'I' is saya, as aku is only suitable if you know somebody very well. 2. When you want to say 'we', you do have to make a choice: do you mean 'I and you' (inclusive), or 'I/we and not you' (exclusive)? This can make a big difference. 3. When you want to say 'you', it is best to use the neutral anda, or something formal, including a pronoun substitute (see Lesson 3); kamu should only be used to a good friend.
4. The pronoun engkau is obsolete except in the Christian scriptures ('thou'). 5. For 'he' or 'she', choose dia; beliau is only suitable if you want to show high respect for someone. 6. In fact, you will find that pronouns tend to be omitted if the sentence is clear without them. In particular, avoid referring to yourself too much. 7. There is no special word for 'it'; depending on the context, there are other ways of saying 'it'. 8. Indonesian has no separate forms according to gender: 'he' and 'she' are the same. 9. The word meréka, 'they', refers only to people, not to things; if you want to talk about things, just repeat the relevant noun.
More about possession We can now expand a little on what has already been said about possession. We have seen rumah saya, 'my house'. Similarly, we could also have rumah kami, 'our house', or rumah meréka, 'their house'. But when the possessor is aku, kamu or dia, then an interesting change takes place: the pronoun takes another form, and is attached to the noun as a suffix, -ku, -mu and -nya, as in the following examples, using the word adik, 'younger brother or sister':
adikku my younger brother/sister adikmu your younger brother/sister adiknya his/her younger brother/sister The suffix -nya is worth making a special note of, as
it has various uses. It can be used as a possessive instead of mereka, so 'of them, their' (but not people), and it can refer to a thing possessor, so 'its'. We will meet it again later.
Simple verbs In order to create a predicate, we can have a noun (as we saw in Lesson 1), or we could have an adjective (to be mentioned later), or a verb. Verbs come in two categories: simple and derived. Simple verbs have no affixes, that is, elements attached to them, whereas derived verbs are produced by various processes of affixation that we will introduce step by step later. Simple verbs come in two kinds, ones that have no object, and ones that do have an object. The difference is clear enough when you look at the meaning of the word. So here are a few examples of simple verbs without an object:
masuk keluar pergi datang tinggal
to go in to go out to go to come to live
Because they do not have objects they are called intransitive. The transitive/intransitive distinction will become relevant when we have to deal with the Indonesian passive. By the way, note also that in our translations of verbs we use the 'infinitive' with 'to..'; this is in order to make it absolutely clear that we are dealing with a verb and not a noun (in English this may not be evident without a context). And now some examples of verbs that can have objects: makan
to have, own
Obviously, you can eat, drink or have something that something is the object, and it follows its verb directly, just where you would expect it. The usual word-order in our sentence will be: subjectverb-object-expression of place. However, we could vary
this, and have: expression of place-subject-verb-object. What is the difference? If the expression of place is put first, then it gets extra emphasis; it says, for example, specifically 'at home', not somewhere else. Three prepositions are introduced here: di 'in, at', ke 'to', and dari 'from'. These will help us to make expressions of place.
to go back
berangkat to leave, set out mengobrol to chat bertanya to ask
to be able; can payung
to want to
When talking to someone, or when referring to them, we should use the appropriate title in front of their name, and not just the name, so Pak Hasan or Bu Yoto. This means that a title will be found even where Mr or Mrs is not usual in English. A Western male is likely to be addressed with the title Om (from Dutch oom 'uncle'), so Om John (using his first name, not his family name). If he is addressed as Pak John, this means that he is becoming integrated into
the Indonesian social world. Similarly, there are quasi-kinship titles for younger people as well, namely Mas 'elder brother' or alternatively Kang; Mbak 'elder sister'; and Dik 'younger brother or sister'. These can be followed by the person's name. In general, terms of address are much more frequent in Indonesian than in English, and to use just someone's name, without a title, would suggest a high degree of intimacy, a big age-gap or a superior-inferior relationship. To say 'Ladies and Gentlemen', as when beginning a speech, we say Bapak-bapak dan Ibu-ibu —note the doubling for the plural, and the order, men first! In a formal letter, we could use as pronouns Bapak or Ibu, both with a capital letter, to mean 'you'.
Pronoun substitutes As well as the genuine pronouns set out in Lesson 2, in Indonesian we find the frequent use of other words (nouns) that take their place and function in exactly the same way as pronouns. It will make your Indonesian more idiomatic if you can use them in the right way. The nouns concerned are terms for family relationships. The main ones are bapak 'father' and ibu 'mother'. These can be used to mean 'you', and would replace anda or saudara. They have quite a different 'feel': on the one hand they express respect, because a parent is someone you look up to, and on the other hand they have a certain warmth, because they mean that we are entering a quasi-familial relationship. Obviously, bapak is used for addressing a mature male, and ibu for a mature female.
Abbreviated forms of bapak and ibu can be used for addressing or calling someone: Pak! Bu! There does not seem to be a real English equivalent for this (not Mr! or Mrs!). (See also the Cultural comments on page 18.) Proper nouns, that is, people's names, can also serve as pronouns, not only second person ( = you) instead of kamu, but also first ( = I) instead of aku, especially when children are speaking, e.g.
Rini lapar, I am hungry. (Rini speaking) Tense We have already seen a number of examples of simple verbs. In Indonesian, the verb does not change its form to indicate tense, as English does (e.g. to gain: gains, gained, and so on). As a result, when translating from Indonesian into English the appropriate tense markers have to be supplied. You can use present, past or future tense depending on what is needed. However, all this does not mean that Indonesian is lacking in precision. We have ways of indicating the tense when it is necessary to be explicit, by using special words which are placed directly in front of the verb concerned, as follows:
The Past The word which indicates the past, that is, that something happened or has been done, is
sudah Note that this expresses both the English 'simple past' (-ed) and the 'perfect' tense (has -ed). And sometimes the translation 'already' fits well too. These words can also be used in front of certain adjectives,
meaning that the condition indicated has been reached, even if an English present is used in translation, e.g. Sudah tua he is old (i.e. is already old or has reached this state). Another word that can be used in the same way here is telah.
The Present This is like the 'default' setting of the verb, referring to something happening now or something that happens regularly. However, we do have a word that can be inserted to suggest that we are 'in the midst of' or 'in the process of' doing something, namely
sedang So we can contrast makan 'eats' with sedang makan 'is in the process of eating'. But sedang will only be put in when it really is necessary to stress this 'continuous' meaning. Another word that can be used in the same way here is tengah.
The Future To express the future, 'will' or 'is going to', we have the word
akan This is placed in front of its verb, just like the cases above. Another word with a similar meaning mau, 'going to, on the point of'; this has another common meaning, 'want to'. Finally, please note that these words cannot be combined with each other to make other tenses, such as the English future perfect ('will have'), and there is no special form for the conditional ('would').
Use of ada As will be seen in the story, this important word has a range of meanings: 'to be there; exist'; 'to be there, to be present'; 'to be there, to have'. An idiomatic use is Ada apa? meaning 'What's up?' (What's wrong, what's the
Another use of -nya Apart from the possessive use already noted, this suffix also has a 'demonstrative' use, best translated with 'the,' that is, making a noun definite. It can also be found idiomatically, attached to an adjective forming a word with adverbial meaning, as in e.g.: Biasanya usually Sayangnya unfortunately
Verbs with berAs well as simple verbs, we will meet some verbs that feature a prefix ber-; examples above are berangkat 'to set out', and bertanya 'to ask'. Verbs of this type are always intransitive. We will have more to say about them in Unit 13.
At the Mall Di Mall
jalan-jalan to go out, on a trip sepéda motor motorcycle kacang
to think, guess
to ask for
Demonstrative words In Lesson 1 we already mentioned the words ini (this) and itu (that), and showed how they can be used as the subject of a sentence. In that position they could be interpreted as 'this thing' and 'that thing'. But there is a different way to use them (and this also applies to English): they can function as qualifying words. This means that they stand alongside another word (a noun), and tell us something about it: they point, 'this.. here', or 'that.. there'. In this function, ini and itu always follow the word they are working with; this is the place that qualifying words occupy in Indonesian (in contrast to English, where they come in front). For example:
Orang ini.. Mobil itu..
this person that car
This is of course not a complete sentence, merely the beginning of one; to finish the sentence, we would have to say something about it. We could add one of our simple verbs, e.g.
Orang ini tidur. Mobil itu keluar. Asking questions
This person is asleep. That car is going out.
A simple way to make a question is to use a rising intonation at the end of the sentence, without any other change, providing the sense is clear, e.g. Suka makan nasi? Do you like eating rice? Further, in order to turn a statement into a question, we use the word apakah, which is placed at the head of the sentence (nowhere else). We do not use inversion (reversing the order of subject and verb), or an auxiliary verb 'do', as in English. For example:
Apakah orang itu tidur?
Is that person asleep?
Apakah mobil itu keluar?
Is that car going out?
(There is only one exception to what was said above: we seem to find inversion in the question Boléh saya.. May I.. ?)
As well as using question sentences, we also have a range of interrogative words, such as How? When? Who? and so on. These will be introduced in following lessons, but here we can make a start with apa? 'What (thing)?'
Using this, we can produce very useful questions, such as:
Ini apa? What is this?
Itu apa? What is that?
Bahasa Inggrisnya apa? What is the English for it? This is the normal word-order; note that it is the opposite of English. Indonesian prefers to place the question-word last, although this can sometimes be varied. As a general principle, the word that comes first in the sentence gets most prominence. In Ini apa? we are focusing on ini 'this', and want to know what it is (apa?). If apa comes first, there is extra stress on the questioning force of the sentence: Apa itu? What on earth is that?
finally, in the end kamus
berbahasa.. in the .. language komik
to go by (mode of transport)
to need to
semuanya all of them, altogether
surat kabar newspaper
Numbers Something that one should learn early is the number system. This is useful when you have to deal with money and negotiating prices, for example, and we find lots of statistical data in newspapers and magazines as well. We begin with the cardinal numbers. (The ordinals, fractions and decimals will be dealt with later.) The Indonesian numeral system is very simple and regular. Having memorized the words for one to ten, there is a special term for the 'teens' belas, and then we can build up the multiples of ten using puluh, multiples of a hundred using ratus, multiples of a thousand using ribu, and multiples of a million using juta. In a big number, the items are strung together without the use of 'and'. Note that satu, 'one', takes the form of the prefix se- when linked with puluh, ratus and so on. The numbers are as follows: 1 satu
30 tiga puluh
12 dua belas
40 empat puluh
13 tiga belas
50 lima puluh
14 empat belas
60 enam puluh
15 lima belas
70 tujuh puluh
16 enam belas
80 delapan puluh
17 tujuh belas
90 sembilan puluh
8 delapan 18 delapan belas 100 seratus 9 sembilan 19 sembilan belas 200 dua ratus 10 sepuluh 20 dua puluh
300 tiga ratus
And then we can go on to 1.000 seribu 2.000 dua ribu, and so on, up to 1.000.000 sejuta 2.000.000 dua juta Here are some examples of big numbers:
1945 seribu sembilan ratus empat puluh lima (Note that we do not say 'nineteen forty-five', but 'one thousand, nine hundred, forty-five'.) 2009 dua ribu sembilan 1.500.230 sejuta lima ratus ribu dua ratus tiga
puluh. Note that in Indonesian a full-stop [titik] separates the thousands (e.g. 56.000 lima-puluh enam ribu), whereas a comma [koma] is used in decimals (e.g. 5,6
lima koma enam). We will now need another question word: berapa, 'how much?'
What Time? Jam Berapa?
to be aged.., .. years orang old Islam
ritual prayer (five times daily)
hari ulang birthday tahun janji
sorry! excuse me
For those who wish to observe them, there are five times (waktu) for ritual prayer (salat) for Muslims. These times are calculated precisely, and as a result the call to prayer will be broadcast from the mosque loudspeakers at almost the same moment, all over the city. The times vary slightly according to the time of year. On Thursday 22 January 2009 in Jakarta, for example, they were:
Here's a way to remember the five times: I S L A M.
You can perform the ritual at home or at the local mosque. But Friday midday prayer, as mentioned in the Story, is a communal time, and there will be a sermon (khotbah) as well, given by the leader (imam).
Talking about time In answer to the question 'Kapan? When?' we can provide information of various kinds, as follows:
Telling the time Jam berapa? What time is it? Jam means
'o'clock', and berapa means 'how much?' To give an answer, we repeat jam and add a number: Jam satu one o'clock Jam dua two o'clock Jam tiga three o'clock, and so on
Then to indicate time past the hour, we use the word
léwat 'past', followed by the number of minutes (menit), thus:
Jam dua léwat sepuluh
ten past two
Jam enam léwat dua puluh twenty past six
A quarter past is expressed with léwat seperempat, e.g. Jam lima léwat seperempat a quarter past five
Half past the hour needs special attention, as it is different from English (but like Dutch). We do not say 'half past' but 'half to the next hour', thus: Jam setengah delapan half past seven
For a quarter to the hour, we say the hour 'less a quarter', e.g.
Jam tujuh kurang seperempat a quarter to seven
For extra clarity, we can add words to indicate what period of the day it is: pagi
the middle of the day
the late afternoon
jam sebelas malam eleven o'clock at night
Note that in a formal context, for example on radio or TV, we will hear pukul instead of jam. And in airline and other timetables we will also find the twenty-four hour clock being used, e.g. pukul delapan belas tiga puluh
The days of the week Hari apa? What day of the week is it? Answer: hari Minggu Sunday (or, more formally, hari Ahad; not to be confused with minggu 'week') hari Senin Monday hari Selasa Tuesday hari Rabu Wednesday hari Kamis Thursday hari Jumat Friday hari Sabtu Saturday
Note that it is usual to repeat the word hari (day) here, as also in special days, such as Hari Ibu (Mother's Day, 22
December), or Hari Ulang Tahun (HUT) the birthday or anniversary of something.
The months of the year Bulan apa? What month is it? Answer: bulan Januari
May (N.B. pronounce like 'May')
August (Note the spelling)
bulan Séptémber September bulan Oktober
bulan Novémber November bulan Désémber December
Dates Tanggal berapa? What date is it? Answer: Hari ini tanggal sepuluh Mei Today is 10 May ('the tenth of May') Tanggal tujuh belas Agustus 17 August ('the seventeenth of August')
Note that we use the cardinal, not the ordinal ('-th') numeral in dates, and must include the word tanggal.
Years Tahun berapa? What year? Answer: Tahun seribu tiga ratus enam puluh lima The year 1365
Finally, some useful adverbs that relate to time: selalu
kadang-kadang sometimes sekarang
Where? Di Mana?
administration perpustakaan library
Talking about place
Di mana? Where? (or: 'in what place'). Answer: Di sini. Here ('in this place') Di situ. There ('in that place') Di sana. There ('in that place, out of sight')
In each of these phrases, we can see the word di, placed in front of a word indicating place. So di is a preposition, and means 'in, at'. In contrast to English 'here' and 'there', we do need the preposition in Indonesian. There are two more words that have the function of indicating direction—ke 'to' and dari 'from'— and can be combined in the same way as above, e.g.
Where to? (lit. 'to where?')
Where from? (lit. 'from where?') So the pattern is becoming clearer now: preposition + place-word = indication of place. These three prepositions can be put in front of any noun that we might need, e.g.
To the market
Dari masjid. From the mosque
There is also a set of position words that are useful to
belakang back atas
samping side antara
the space between
Each of these can have, indeed must have, one of the three prepositions mentioned, di, ke or dari, in order to make good sense. So we get: Di dalam
inside (lit. 'on the inside'), within
outside (lit. 'on the outside')
Di belakang behind, at the back Di atas
above, on top, at the top
below, under, at the bottom
Di samping at the side, beside Di antara
And so on. But then we can add more information, by using another noun in a possessive relation: on the inside/outside etc. of what? For example: Di atas méja
on the table (lit. 'on the top of the table')
Di bawah under the chair (lit. 'on the underside of the chair'). And so kursi on.
Directions In Indonesia it is quite common to give directions using the points of the compass:
utara selatan north timur
and of course also kanan right, and kiri
These are generally accompanied by the word sebelah 'side', as in e.g. di sebelah kanan, 'on the right, on the right-hand side'. When turning, we can say bélok ke kanan, or just belok kanan, 'turn right'.
More interrogative words We have already seen kapan? when?. mana what place?
Here are some more words for asking questions: Bagaimana? How? In what way? Like what? Mengapa?
Why? For what reason?
For the sake of completeness, we should add a second use of mana, alongside the one mentioned above; this is 'which?', when we are making a choice among several alternatives. In this case it follows the word it applies to, e.g. Jalan mana?
Which street? (We have several possibilities, and want to know which one to take.)
In the Street Di Jalan
(adv.) just, only
menyeberang to cross (over)
to look for
time, occasion (cf. waktu) pertama kali the first time
to be wrong, make a mistake
kantor pos post office
see you later ('till meet')
the other side
(no separate translation; sedikit a particle
a little bit
used in speech, in this sekali position
all (of them)
to pass by
maksudnya you mean
It can sometimes happen that we strike up a conversation with a perfect stranger, in the train, on the bus and so on, and they start asking questions that may seem intrusive and personal, such as 'Are you married?' And if you say 'Yes', then they'll ask how many children you have, and you say 'None', then they ask 'Why?' and so on. Don't succumb to the temptation to say 'Mind your own business!' Just smile and give a non-committal answer, or question them in return. It's only out of interest in social matters and meant to establish contact, nothing more.
Saying 'yes' and 'no' For conversation, we need to be able to say 'yes' and 'no'. In fact, these form a one-word sentence, meaning 'I agree' or 'That's right', and 'I don't agree' or 'That's not right' respectively. The words are: ya and tidak.
Ya. Yes. This could be the answer to a question. In that case, seeing that ya is such a short (and abrupt-sounding) word, our sentence should contain the verb being questioned, like this: Apakah ada roti? Do you have any bread? Ya, ada.
Yes, we do.
Suka makan nasi? Do you like eating rice? Ya, suka.
Yes, I do.
While on the subject, we should mention another usage of ya, at the end of a sentence. In this position it either emphasizes an order, or seeks confirmation: 'you have heard, haven't you?', or 'you do agree, don't you?'. This is very common in conversation; a translation with 'yes' does not seem to fit.
In the same way as ya, this could also be the answer to a question, and could also be followed by a verb: Apakah suka makan durian? Do you like eating durian? Tidak suka.
No, I don't.
Two colloquial forms of tidak are often heard: ndak or nggak. These are only appropriate in an informal context, and are not normally written. Further, tidak is the normal word for negating any verb or adjective: 'not..'; 'is not.., does not.' and so forth. As in the example above, Tidak suka, it comes in front of the word it applies to. However, there is a second word for negating, bukan. This is found in front of a noun or pronoun. It also means 'not', e.g. Bukan saya. Not me.
Bukan can form a one-word sentence: 'No.' It has the sense of 'No, not that', or 'No, it's different'. And bukan can also be found at the end of a sentence, or even in the middle of a sentence, often abbreviated to kan, with the meaning of 'That's right, isn't it', asking for confirmation, so it can be translated in a variety of ways, e.g. 'isn't it', 'doesn't it' and so on. Finally, there is another negative word, belum, which stands for two English words, 'not yet' (even if these are separated in an English sentence). This word occupies the same place as tidak, but is used in different circumstances. Where we answer 'no' in English, if there is
still a possibility that something might happen, then in Indonesian we have to use belum, 'not yet'. For example: Sudah sembuh? Have you recovered? Belum.
No (but in time I will).
More about numbers We have already seen a complete set of cardinal numbers (see Lesson 5), so now we can deal with the ordinals. These are formed by prefixing ke- to the numeral. The only exception is pertama, 'first'. So we get: pertama first kedua
third, and so on
Fractions are formed with the prefix per- prefixed to the numeral. The only exception is half. Thus:
perempat: seperempat one quarter/fourth tiga perempat three quarters/fourths; and so on
Similarly, Lima setengah five and a half (Note: no word used for 'and').
Buying a Fan Beli Kipas Angin
as a result
very good, fine
lalu lintas traffic
lembab humid, moist
to be thinking things over suara
sama-sama you're welcome!
Nouns and adjectives Beginning in Lesson 1, we have met simple nouns, and have seen how they can be a subject, the object of a verb, or in a possessive relation with another noun or a pronoun. As well as simple nouns, there are also derived forms (as with verbs too), which will be discussed in detail later. Nouns are described (or 'qualified') by adjectives. Adjectives always follow the nouns they describe, in contrast to English, where they come in front. Some examples:
cuaca baik good weather ('weather' 'good': noun + adjective)
a high salary
istan a lama the old palace
Note how the words 'a' and 'the' have to be supplied in translation, depending on the context. As well as this function, adjectives also form a predicate, that is, can form a complete sentence together with a subject. They do this without any joining word like English 'is', 'are' and so on, and in this way are similar to (but not the same as) verbs. The following two words could form a complete sentence, or could just be a noun with adjective: Sawah hijau. The rice field is green; or The green rice field..
So in order to make the situation clearer, in the former case we could include another little word, describing sawah, e.g. Sawah ini hijau. This rice field is green.
Here the word-group sawah ini is the subject, and hijau is the predicate. This is a complete sentence.
Further, adjectives themselves can be modified, for example by saying 'very', 'too' and so on, e.g.
besar sekali very big terlalu mahal too expensive
Here word-order needs special attention, as sekali, 'very', always comes after its adjective, and terlalu, 'too', always in front. There is another word meaning 'very', sangat, which comes in front, e.g. sangat panas very hot
Sometimes, when they follow a verb, adjectives could be said to have an adverbial function, e.g. bekerja keras to work hard pulang cepat to return home quickly
There will be more on adverbs in the next lesson. In order to form the comparative ('more, -er'), we use the word lebih, placed in front of the adjective. And in order to form the superlative ('most, -est'), we use the word paling, also put in front of the adjective. Finally, adjectives can serve as base-word in certain derived forms, for example forming an abstract noun, referring to a quality ('-ness'). This will be dealt with later.
especially, above all, all mungkin the more
usual; accustomed to
murni used, nyaman pakaian pakaian
troublesome, a lot of bother
hari hujan rainy day
appropriate, in keeping with
tentu saja of course, certainly
terutama especially, in particular
wear memakai to meaning 'to use'). On Lesson 15.
tipis (second tropis me-
mencuci to wash menjadi
thin tropical who; which (on the uses of yang, see Lessons 12 and 26).
Modal words This term refers to a group of very useful words (sometimes called 'auxiliary verbs'), which can be found directly in front of verbs. A complete list is as follows: bisa
can; to be able, be capable of, know how to
can; to be able; to be within the range of one's ability
may; to be allowed to
should; to have to; ought to
must; to have to
must; to need to
mampu able; to have the capacity; to be able to afford sanggup prepared to; willing sempat to have the opportunity mau
to want to
to want, wish, desire to
We have already seen a number of these. Of course there are other words that come in front of verbs too, such as negatives and tense markers, so the question of order arises. The principle is that the one placed first modifies the meaning of the ones that follow. Normally we would expect the negative, tidak, to come first, e.g. tidak mau does not want to tidak akan will not tidak perlu does not need to
Adverbs With this term we are referring to words or phrases which tell us when or how an action takes place. Some useful words saying 'when' are: sekarang
(for) a moment
kadang-kadang sometimes sering
just now, a moment ago
The last two have another interesting use with nouns indicating times of day, when they show past and future times, within a 24-hour period, e.g. tadi malam
last night (said in the morning, about the night just past)
this morning (said in the afternoon, about the morning just past)
this afternoon/evening (said in the morning, about the afternoon coming)
tonight (said in the afternoon, about the night coming)
Adverbs that say 'how' are sometimes the same as adjectives, e.g. bekerja keras to work hard turun cepat
to go down fast
while others are formed by using the preposition
dengan ('with'), e.g dengan teliti accurately
dengan rajin diligently
and there are yet others formed with the word secara ('in a .. manner') preceding a verb, e.g. secara teratur regularly ('in a regular manner') secara terbuka openly ('in an open manner')
More uses of this prefix se- will be mentioned later. We have already seen the word lebih meaning 'more' before an adjective. A word with an opposite meaning is kurang, which when placed before an adjective can mean 'not very', e.g. kurang énak not very nice (of food)
This is similar to tidak begitu, 'not particularly', e.g. tidak begitu jelas not particularly clear
On the positive side, we have cukup, which alongside its usual meaning of 'enough' also means 'quite', e.g. cukup ramai quite busy (pretty busy, but not very)
Finally, we have the idioms for 'ever' and 'never',
pernah and tidak/belum pernah respectively. For example, you might hear the question: Sudah pernah ke Surabaya? Have you ever been to Surabaya?
The answer could be: Pernah. Yes, I have (or: 'Once', but not 'Ever'!).
Or you might answer: Belum pernah.
No, I haven't. Or: Never. (This means that you haven't been yet, but you might still.)
(The answer Tidak pernah would apply to someone who has died, as there is no longer a possibility of going.)
In the Kampong Di Kampung
(Arabic) 'God is melihat great'
to head for, go in
the direction of
big, main (road)
to climb up
to feel longing, homesick
sebentar lagi in a moment
kampung residential area
Doubling of nouns and adjectives The process of doubling (also called 'reduplication') is quite common in Indonesian. It is indicated with a hyphen (and in older texts with the digit 2). Strictly speaking, the doubled form is not in fact two words joined, but a new word formed on the basis of the non-doubled one. We find doubling with nouns, adjectives, verbs, a few adverbs, and even numerals and others.
Nouns 1. The simple form of the noun is neutral with regard to plurality. In other words, it does not contain a mark, comparable to English -s, to tell us whether one or more objects are involved: we can translate with a singular or a plural in English, depending on what is implied in the context. This is not normally a problem, but there is the possibility of using doubling. Doubling always involves the idea of plurality. This is often combined with the idea of variety or generality as well. Any noun, whether simple or derived, can be doubled. But this is not usually done unless it is unclear that more than one object is being referred to, or if it is important to make it explicit that plurality or generality is intended. In general, one should resist the temptation to always double an Indonesian noun merely to indicate an
English plural - that would become rather cumbersome. A noun is never doubled if it is associated with a numeral, because the number already makes it clear that the noun is plural. Similarly, if the noun refers to a class of things, there is no need for doubling. It is also not found when we use the word para to indicate a group or collectivity, e.g. para petani, 'farmers' (as a group). 2. We should also mention that there are a few nouns that have a doubled form which is not the result of a process of doubling, because they have no 'non-doubled' form in contrast to them. Some examples are: gado-gado a dish of mixed vegetables with a tasty sauce oléh-oléh a present brought back from a trip for those at home
In a case like this, a doubled form, such as gadogado-gado-gado, would obviously be out of the question! 3. When we have a concept made up of a combination of two nouns, e.g. pohon mangga, 'mango-tree', when doubling occurs this only applies to the first part: pohon-pohon mangga, 'mango-trees'; surat kabar 'newspaper': surat-surat kabar, 'newspapers'.
Adjectives Doubling of an adjective occurs when the noun it describes is plural. Doubling suggests that the quality indicated by the adjective applies to all the objects. Doubling is found in either the noun or the adjective, never both. An example: Anaknya kurus-kurus. His children are (all) thin.
Contrast: Anak-anaknya kurus. His (various) children are thin.
Law Lectures Kuliah Hukum
membantu to assist
mengikuti to follow
to differ from
mengobrol to chat
sick of it, fed up, bored menjawab to answer
only (in front, cf. saja af menurut
ter the concerned)
hukum pidana criminal law
hukum syariah Islamic law
for fun, not serious
for (a period of time)
not bad, fairly good
tatahukum legal structure
The relative pronoun Indonesian has an all-purpose relative pronoun: yang. This is a word which has several important uses. The first is to introduce a relative clause, that is, a clause that adds extra information about a noun and contains a verb or adjective. This clause begins with yang. This is translated with 'who' (for people), or 'that' or 'which' for things. It is important not to confuse these with the question-words 'who?' and 'which?' Here are some examples, showing the noun, and the added information introduced by yang.
.. ibu, yang selalu sibuk di dapur mother, who is always busy in the kitchen
.. jalan, yang kadang-kadang macet the road, which is sometimes blocked
.. murid-murid, yang senang belajar di gedung baru the pupils, who enjoy studying in the new building. A second use of yang can be found between a noun and its adjective. In this case we do not translate it as a relative pronoun ('who, that, which'); in fact we do not give it a separate translation at all. But it does have a special meaning: it tells us that we have a variety of objects, and we are selecting only the one(s) with the quality indicated by the adjective. Note the difference between the following phrases: pakaian bersih
pakaian yang bersih (the) clean clothes (among the many)
In the second case, we have a choice out of a range of possibilities: we are selecting only the clean items. jalan sepi jalan yang sepi
a quiet street a quiet street (among the many)
We could live anywhere, but I don't want a noisy street. I want a quiet one. There are two more interesting uses of yang, which will be mentioned in again in Lesson 26, but one needs to be noted here: when our sentence begins with a noun, followed by yang, this serves to highlight that noun, as in the story above: Dosén-dosénnya yang membantu, which should be translated with 'It is his lecturers who assist'. Clearly, there are no separate words in the Indonesian sentence for 'it' or 'is' here. Finally, the idiom Ada yang.., ada yang should be
translated with 'Some.., (and) others..'
Indefinite words Here are some words which have an indefinite meaning and will prove useful in conversation. Note how they are formed: by full or partial duplication. apa-apa
anything (with a negative: not anything, = nothing)
it's nothing; it doesn't matter; I don't mind
some time (an undefined time in the future), e.g.
Kapan-kapan saya mau Some time I want to go to Bali again. ke Bali lagi. sesuatu
something (note the link with satu 'one'), e.g.
Ada sesuatu yang tidak There's something not in order here. bérés di sini. seseorang
Ada seseorang There's someone knocking at the door. mengetok pintu. some, several, a few (not to be confused with berapa 'how many?'), e.g.
beberapa Beberapa (yang) lalu .
minggu . A few weeks ago ..
A note on pada The word pada is a preposition which can be translated with 'in', 'on' or 'at' (depending on the context), sometimes relating to time, e.g. Pada jam sebelas .. at eleven o'clock Pada bulan April .. in the month of April, or, as in the story, Pada awalnya, ..
in the beginning,
Pada waktu itu ..
at that time,
but also more generally, e.g. Pada pendapat saya,.. In my opinion.
and following certain words expressing feelings, e.g. cinta pada . . to be loving toward benci pada .. to hate
So it is quite different from the words di 'in, at, on', normally used for location only, and dalam 'in, within'.
The Poor Orang Miskin
you must be kidding!
menganggap to consider, think, regard as
to keep around
to gather, together
going musim dingin nasib
to have the opinion perusahaan company, business
to pile up
to make an effort
bank (of river)
The prefix berThis is the first of the verbal prefixes to be described. We have already included several examples. Whenever we come across a word with the prefix ber-, we know that the word is a verb, and we also know that it will be intransitive. That is, it does not have an object. This is an important point, because the ability to have an object is related to the question of active and passive forms (which will be dealt with in Lesson 18). Regarding formation, the prefix ber- is found attached to the front of a base-word. The only real complication is when the base-word begins with the letter r-; in that case only one r is written, e.g. rambut berambut 'to have hair'. Another point is that when the base-word contains an r (in the middle or at the end), we can sometimes see the prefix take the form of bel-, e.g. ajar
belajar to study
As for meaning, it might be useful to observe the kind of base-word involved in the formation of a ber-verb: is it a noun, or a verb, or perhaps an adjective? If it is a noun, then we see a meaning of 'to have' (whatever the base-word means) — sometimes quite clearly, otherwise only in a very general sense, e.g.
bernama to have a name, to be called; or berumur to have an age, to be aged With both of these words, we would expect the meaning of the verb to be completed in some way: a noun following is not an object, but can be termed a complement, thus:
Anaknya bernama Freddy. His/her son is named (called) Freddy.
Dia berumur lima-belas tahun. He is aged fifteen years. (Or: He is fifteen years old.) In other cases, the verb has to be interpreted according to the meaning of the base-word, e.g. baju (shirt)
berbaju to wear a shirt, to have a shirt on
berhasil to have a (good) result, to succeed
berteman to be friends (with someone, use dengan..)
There are some very common ber- verbs which have
'verbal' base-words. It cannot be said that the prefix has a special meaning — it just has to be there in order to make an acceptable form. Such words are: berjalan to go, travel berangkat to set out, depart, leave berbuat
to do, act
bertemu to meet (with, use dengan..) berpikir
Alongside these, there are a few examples where a verb with the prefix ber- is found alongside one without, in almost the same meaning: the difference is that the one with ber- is more formal. And it is worth noting that the prefix ber- is often omitted in colloquial Indonesian. There are more kinds of verb which have the prefix ber-, but then in combination with a suffix. These have particular meanings, and are all intransitive. They will be discussed in Lesson 24.
A note on adalah and ialah In Lesson 1 we said that there is no separate word for 'is' ('are', etc.) in Indonesian between subject and predicate ('this is that'). And now the exceptions. Especially in longer sentences, it is sometimes felt necessary to insert a word showing clearly the link. This word is adalah ('is', 'was'), as we see in the story above. The word ialah is the same, except that it is found only after third-person subjects.
menikmati to enjoy (on the suffix -i, see Lesson 17)
batuk-batuk to keep on coughing menjual
to shine, be on (light)
to light up
bermacam- of various sorts
perempatan crossroads, intersection
priya punya men's (N.B. colloquial
lampu mérah traffic lights
or sub-standard) rokok
carton (of cigarettes)
to come running
a certain, one
menawarkan to offer (for sale)
to rise in clouds
While smoking may be in decline in some other parts of the world, it still thrives in Indonesia. We think of the famous kréték cigarette, for example those made at the Gudang Garam factory in Kediri, East Java, set up by Tjoa Ing Hwie in 1958 and employing many thousands of workers. These cigarettes produce the characteristic aroma of cloves (cengkéh) and spices mixed in the tobacco. This is much appreciated and is quite different from Western cigarettes. Smoking can be said to have a social function, for example when men sit down to relax and have a chat, and it is the custom to provide cigarettes for guests as part of one's hospitality.
Classifiers Indonesian uses a small number of words termed 'classifiers' to indicate the number of certain objects; they are common for one or low numbers. As the term suggests, they 'classify' or group the noun concerned. The classifier is preceded by the number and followed by the noun. The commonest classifiers are:
orang 'human being' for people, e.g. seorang guru a teacher (lit. 'one human being of teachers') ékor 'tail' for animals, e.g.
dua ékor kambing two goats (lit. 'two tail of goats', cf. English 'head of cattle')
buah 'fruit' for largish, inanimate objects, e.g. dua buah rumah two houses biji 'seed' for small, round objects, e.g. tiga biji telur three eggs batang 'cylinder' for long, round objects, e.g. sepuluh batang rokok ten cigarettes
helai 'sheet' for thin objects, e.g. sehelai sapu tangan a handkerchief You should look out for more such words when you start reading Indonesian prose.
The prefix seIn some of the examples above we see the prefix se-. It also occurs in the numerals sepuluh ten, seratus one hundred, and seribu one thousand. So it means 'one' or 'a'. It is found in this meaning with other words that measure quantities, e.g.
sekilo a kilo: sekilo beras or beras sekilo a kilo of rice seliter a liter: seliter bénsin or bénsin seliter a liter of petrol/gas Seeing that se- means 'one', we could also say satu kilo or satu liter to stress 'one', not two or some other number. Other words indicating quantities or numbers refer to containers (e.g. bungkus 'packet'); to time (e.g. jam 'hour'); distance (e.g. meter 'metres'); natural groups (e.g. kawan 'herd'), and so on. A very useful one is semacam 'a kind of', e.g. semacam séndok besar 'a kind of big spoon'. The prefix se- has several other important functions that can be mentioned here: '-ly' with expressions of time, e.g. tiga kali seminggu three time a week/weekly; dua kali
sebulan twice monthly 'whole', e.g. seisi the whole contents; seAsia panAsia; sekitar around, surrounding 'of the same', e.g. serupa similar, of the appearance; semasa contemporary, of the time; seumur of the same age; setempat from the same place; sekelas in the same sependapat of the same opinion
same same local, class;
'as.. as', with an adjective, in comparisons, e.g. sebesar gunung as big as a mountain; setinggi langit as high as the sky 'to the amount of', e.g. cék sebesar 1000 dolar a cheque to the amount of (for) $1,000; selama seminggu for a week 'as far as', with a verb, e.g. setahu saya as far as I know; seingat saya as far as I remember 'in accordance with', in particular with the word secara in a .. manner, e.g. secara resmi officially (lit. 'in an official way'); secara tertulis written (not oral) (lit. 'in a written way') 'after, upon', with certain verbs, e.g. setibanya di Semarang when she arrived in Semarang..; sepulangnya dari luar negeri when he got back from overseas..
The prefix se- with suffix -nya The following forms can be regarded as adverbs. They are all useful for conversation. sebenarnya in fact, actually sebaiknya ought to, better, preferably seharusnya should have (but didn't) semaunya at will, as one likes, randomly, arbitrarily
But with doubling of an adjective base-word we find the meaning of 'at the ..-est', e.g. kurang
at the least
at the most
at the quickest, as quickly as possible
The 'Taman Mini' Taman Mini
1 Note on pronunciation: in the word tahu 'to know' the h is silent; if it is sounded, we get the meaning 'bean curd' (with the same spelling). 2 Pronounced like 'teen', not 'ti-en'.
complete, in full
to go out and have fun
to build, set up
even so exhibition
papan nama sign, board
to increase, grow in propinsi number
cari: mencari to find, look for
on the way
as (in the capacity of)
from; (also si sometimes) of
'our', 'old' (familiar particle
opened (N.B. passive verb
before a name)
to wrestle, struggle
with prefix di-)
erti: mengerti to understand
tempat parkir parking area
to explain, (N.B. suffix
menerangkan -kan, see Lesson 16)
to approach (time)
to watch tourist
to fetch, go and get
kebudayaan culture kehidupan
Verbs with the prefix meNWe have already seen a number of verbs of this type. This is a very common form for Indonesian verbs to take: the prefix me- combined with a nasal sound (N). This sound (ng, m, n, ny) either comes in front of the base-word, or replaces its initial consonant according to certain rules, as will be shown in the table next page. It is essential to be able to 'deconstruct' meN- verbs to find their base-word, so that one can use a dictionary, as good dictionaries list derived forms under the base-word. This system has the advantage that you can see all existing derived forms listed together, rather than spread over different pages. From here on, our Wordlists will use this method. Verbs formed this way are normally transitive and active. In other words, they are verbs which can have an object, and are found in the sentence pattern:
subject-meN-verb-object This means that they are active verbs, not passive. With the passive (which will be discussed in Lesson 18), we find a different form of the verb, and a different sentence pattern. Having said this, it is true that there exist a small number of meN- verbs which are intransitive, that is, cannot have an object, and therefore have no passive. There are also a great number of meN- verbs which feature a suffix -kan or -i. These will be treated separately, in Lessons 16 and 17. The following table shows how verbs are formed from their base-word:
Here are some examples of how this works. Basewords beginning with: Any vowel
menghambat to delay, obstruct
mengganggu to annoy, bother
to become red
to know, recognize, be familiar with
to order, command
to get, obtain
to look for
to carry, take
In the above list, memérah and menjadi are intransitive verbs (cannot have an object). There are a few ambiguous cases, where you may have to look in two places in the dictionary to find a word. For example, if you come across the word mengurus, is the base-word urus or kurus? (In the first case, it would mean 'to arrange', and in the second 'to become thinner', so which one fits your context?) Unfortunately, there are a few exceptions and unusual cases that should be noted: a) With loanwords adopted from English or Dutch the rules may not apply, e.g. prakték
to put into practice
b) Other words where the same can be seen are: punya
(The prefix memper- will be mentioned in Lesson 16.)
c) Monosyllabic base-words may cause problems: sah
to legalize, authorize
d) Some more odd cases: tahu
to find out or
With makan 'to eat' and minum 'to drink' a prefix me- is not normally found. And in Jakarta dialect, the rules of nasalization are different: me- is not used.
Pronoun objects When a meN- verb (with or without a suffix) has an object which is a personal pronoun, this can be expressed in the form of a suffix, that is, be attached to the verb, with forms for each person, thus: 1st person pronoun aku 'I': object -ku 'me' 2nd person pronoun kamu 'you': object -mu 'you' 3rd person pronoun dia 'he, she': object -nya 'him, her'. Also 'it', e.g.:
mempelajari 'to study' (transitive) mempelajarinya to study it Note that these suffixes, despite the fact that they
may look the same, are not to be confused with the possessive suffixes -ku, -mu and -nya. These pronoun objects can only occur when the verb has the meN- prefix, and only refer to the pronouns mentioned.
TV Dramas Sinétron
scene (of story) émosi
plot (of story)
to disturb, bother
bagi bantuin membantu berbicara
= to help to speak
course, where it is going
as it happened
some other time
accompanied by musik
nggak = tidak
pakai: memakai to use
tangis: menangis to cry
to ask about
to calm, soothe
pelajar: mempelajari to study
to pass away
sewaktu-waktu from time to time yakin sinetron
TV series, soap opera
Verbs with the suffix -kan As mentioned earlier, verbs with the prefix meN- can also have a suffix, either -kan or -i. We will deal with the first in
this lesson. We should stress that the purpose of the discussion is to help identifying the meaning of a given verb and getting an accurate feeling for its place in relation to the other words in a sentence. This is why we analyze words in terms of their base-word and affixes—we are not inviting anybody to make up forms for themselves! When we see the suffix -kan we know for sure that we are dealing with a transitive verb, even if the object is not expressed. (There is one case which looks like an exception, see below.) For the sake of clarity, we can group the -kan verbs under several paragraphs. 1. In this group we can place a large number of verbs which have the suffix -kan merely in order to be complete and correct; in this sense, the suffix cannot be said to have a special 'meaning'. Examples: CONTRAST work mengerjakan to (something)
(base-word: kerja) membutuhkan to need discuss berbicara to discuss membicarakan to (something) [INTRANSITIVE] memikirkan
to think (something)
2. In this group we can place verbs where a form with suffix -kan and one without can be contrasted with each other, each with a different translation, the form with kan showing a more 'transitive' effect on the object. Sometimes there is very little difference in practice. Examples:
CONTRAST mengirimkan to send off, dispatch mengirim to send (base-word: kirim) CONTRAST mendengarkan to listen to
mendengar to hear
membacakan to read aloud, recite membaca to read mendapatkan to obtain, procure
mendapat to get
menekan to press down, to hold back
3. One of the major areas of meaning associated with certain -kan verbs is 'causative', that is, to bring about the action indicated by the base-word. Examples: CONTRAST mengadakan
to organize, make
meninggalkan to leave behind menjatuhkan
to drop, let something jatuh fall
to be, to be there to stay, behind to fall
mengembalikan to return, send back
to go back
to go up
to lower, reduce
to go down
to set up, establish
menghentikan to stop (something)
4. The same causative meaning, but this time with an adjective as base-word, so 'to bring about the quality indicated by the base-word'. Examples: membersihkan to clean (cf. bersih clean) mengeringkan to dry (something) (cf. kering dry) mematikan
to turn off, extinguish (e.g. a light) (cf. mati dead; out)
The above must have an object, but there are some interesting forms with adjectives as base-words that do not have objects; in fact they themselves behave like adjectives, in that they can be modified by adverbs, e.g. sekali 'very'. Examples: menghérankan amazing (cf. héran amazed) membosankan boring (cf. bosan bored) menjijikkan
nauseating (cf. jijik nauseated)
frightening (cf. takut frightened)
embarrassing (cf. malu embarrassed, ashamed)
menyenangkan pleasing (cf. senang pleased, happy)
5. Another kind of 'causative' meaning is 'to have someone do something'. These -kan verbs contrast with a simple transitive verb. Examples: CONTRAST mencucikan
to have (something) washed mencuci
to have (something) printed mencétak to print
to lend ( = have borrow)
meminjam to borrow
6. Another major area of meaning sometimes associated with -kan verbs is the 'benefactive', that is, to do something for the benefit of someone else. Verbs of this kind have two objects, the first being the person for whom the action is done, and the second the thing to which it applies. (This has important consequences for a passive form.) An English example may help: 'Bring me a glass of water'. Here the idea is 'for me'. It is sometimes possible to omit the beneficiary, and still keep the benefactive meaning. Further, such a benefactive meaning is only found when the verb is not normally required to have -kan, either to be correct or to give a causative meaning; in that case the idea of 'for' has to be expressed with the preposition untuk 'for, on behalf of'. Examples: CONTRAST mencarikan to look for somebody
to look for
membukakan to open (something) for somebody membuka to open
Finally, please note that verbs with the suffix -kan can sometimes be contrasted with ones featuring the suffix -i. This suffix will be discussed in Lesson 17.
The prefix memperWhile talking about causative meanings, it is convenient to mention the prefix memper-. Sometimes this is combined with a suffix -kan or -i. It occurs with an adjective as baseword, and means 'to raise the degree of whatever the base-word indicates'. It is not interchangeable with causative verbs with the suffix -kan; one or the other is preferred, or there is a distinction in meaning. Examples:
to extend (e.g. a visa), from panjang long
(cf. memanjangkan to lengthen (an object)) memperdalam
to deepen (e.g. knowledge), from dalam deep
(cf. mendalamkan to make deeper (e.g. a well)) memperkaya
to enrich, from kaya rich (a form mengayakan does not exist)
to beautify, from indah beautiful (but mengindahkan means to pay attention, and is not connected)
to introduce (one person to another), from kenal acquainted;
(cf. mengenalkan to make known (a thing, when it was not known before) memperbaiki
to repair, correct, from baik good
(cf. membaikkan to improve something, treat well)
This is not a complete account of all the possibilities. Remember that 'hard-and-fast' rules are rare. If in doubt, please do some research in your dictionary, to see what actually occurs and what does not.
Visit to an Expat Family Kunjungan Ke Keluarga Ékspat
AC (pron. air-conditioning 'ah-sé',
to be asked for something
bermuka ria with a cheerful face hubung: menghu-
bingungkan cicip: mencicipi
to taste, sample
to fall over
dan and so forth seterusnya
quite (not 'also' here)
spicy peanut sauce
lalu: melalui via; to go through
till, to the extent that
luka: melukai to hurt, injure meréka diami
sesat: to lead astray menyesatkan
occupied by them setelah (N.B.
passive, Lesson 18)
to find out about
to phone, call
orang asing foreigner, expat pengaruh: mem-
to influence (N.B. terjun irregular
to dive in
forced (on ter-, see Lesson
perusahaan business, enterprise
Verbs with the suffix -i Verbs are also found with this suffix attached. Some transitive verbs have -kan, and others -i. There are also some cases where a base-word can be found with one or the other—mostly with a significant difference in meaning, of course. Regarding meaning, there are two quite different functions to be distinguished, the first being much more important than the second. Firstly, verbs with the suffix -i often have what can be called a 'locative' meaning, that is, one in which the action of the verb is directed to or something is applied to a 'place'. In translation into English, in some cases a preposition has to be added to express this sense. Within this, rather vague, area several different groups of words can be listed, as follows: 1. Based on an intransitive verb: duduk
sit on; to occupy
to be present
be present at; to attend
mempercayai to believe in, rely on
melangkah to step
step over; to disregard
menangis to weep
weep over, bemoan
2. Intransitive verbs that occur with a following preposition have an alternative transitive form with this suffix: cinta akan
to be fond of
menggemari to be fond of, be a fan of
to be aware of
know tahu akan to about
(N.B. a form membencii is impossible)
to be aware of
mengetahui to know about, find out about
3. With a noun as base-word, the meaning is to apply that object to something: air
mengobati to supply with medicine; to treat
to supply with water; to irrigate
meminyaki to apply oil to; to grease
Amusingly, we also find an example where the meaning is not to supply, but to remove something! kulit skin
menguliti to skin, peel
4. Again with a noun as base-word, there are several verbs that mean to occupy a position with regard to something: ketua chairperson
mengetuai to chair (e.g. a meeting)
mengepalai to head (e.g. a committee)
to stand in (somebody)
5. With base-words that indicate relative position, the verb with -i means to be or move at that distance: lalu past
to go past/through (some place)
mendekati to go near (something, someone); to approach
menjauhi to keep away from, avoid (something)
6. There are several adjectival base-words which form -i verbs that contrast with ones with -kan, showing an interesting difference in meaning: panas hot
to warm up (by applying heat)
(cf. memanaskan to heat, cause/allow to become hot) malu ashamed'
to bring shame on
(cf. memalukan to make ashamed, disgrace (also disgraceful)) kering dry
mengeringi to drain (a place) (cf. mengeringkan to dry, allow something to dry out)
7. There are several more important verbs of this type, where the form with -i is the main one, and the one with -kan is less common, without a clear difference in meaning. Only the first need to be mentioned here: lengkap complete
melengkapi to complete, supplement
mengurangi to lessen, reduce
mendalami to deepen; to go more deeply into (something)
8. The following verbs have contrasting meanings, depending on the suffix:
masuk to go in
memasuki to enter (a place) (cf. memasukkan to put in (cause something to enter))
to go up
to climb up/onto (something),
(cf. menaikkan to lift, raise (cause to go up)) go turun to down
to descend (a place)
(cf. menurunkan to lower, reduce (cause to go down))
9. While on the subject of contrasting forms, we have a small but very important group of words where the form with the suffix -i has the person as first object and the thing as second object, whereas the form with -kan has the thing as object. (This difference has consequences for the passive, see below.) pinjam
meminjami to lend (someone something) (cf. meminjamkan to lend (something to someone))
mengirimi to send (someone something), (cf. mengirimkan to send (something to someone))
to give (someone something) (N.B. a form memberii does not exist)
(cf. memberikan to give (something to someone))
menawari to offer (someone something) (cf. menawarkan to offer (something to someone))
In the case of these -kan verbs, the person is introduced with kepada 'to'. Another example of a verb with the two suffixes is:
bertanya to ask a question; menanyai to ask, question, interrogate (someone) (cf. menanyakan 'to ask about' (something)) For the sake of completeness, we should mention the second major usage of the suffix -i, which is quite different from the first. Here the basic sense seems to be repetition, which may lie in repeating the action, or in applying the action to a number of objects. Verbs that already have a suffix -i or -kan as discussed above cannot have the 'repetitive' -i. In translation one should be aware of the possibility that this function may be present. Examples: CONTRAST to wrap membungkusi (many things)
membungkus to wrap
to move memindahkan (something from memindahi one place to another)
to lift up; carry mengangkat away
to move (various things)
to carry mengangkati away (many things)
In some cases this usage can be also interpreted as
expressing intensity or thoroughness, as in: CONTRAST bakar
membakar to membakari to burn (either plural burn objects, or completely)
memegang to memegangi to hold (either plural objects, hold or tightly)
to melihati see
to look at closely, scrutinize
(It is possible that the form menanyai mentioned on page 128 also shares a meaning of repetition or intensity, as expressed in the translation 'to interrogate', suggesting asking repeatedly or thoroughly.)
The Interview Wawancara
berkomunikasi to communicate déh
list (colloquial em-
to proceed, go ahead
phasizing something is
this much, as much as this
suruh: disuruh told, ordered
to enter on, follow (a way)
pasca sarjana postgraduate
pilih: memilih to choose
laughed at, made fun of
ramah-tamah friendly, cordial rekam: meréka
wakan warm, urus: diurus
recorded by them wawancara wawancara: diwa-
rekam rusak: dirusakkan
destroyed, ruined wancarai
to love, be fond of
arranged, organized interview interviewed
The passive The difference between active and passive verb forms is very important in Indonesian, as the passive is much used. To understand the difference, it might be useful to start from an example in English: Many people read this book. [ACTIVE] Compare: This book is read by many people. [PASSIVE] In the first sentence, the subject is 'many people', and in the second 'this book'—a change of focus. At the same time, the form of the verb has also changed, from 'read' to 'is read', and with other words we see the ending -ed. (In different examples, 'is' might of course be replaced with 'am', 'are', 'was', 'were'; and the -ed here is the past participle, and has nothing to do with the past tense.) The situation in Indonesian is very similar, in that with the passive the focus of the sentence is different, and the form of the verb changes too. A normal active structure is: Subject - meN-verb Object. But in Indonesian it is very common to highlight the object, by making it the subject, that is, by putting it first in the sentence and changing the verb into a passive form. Somehow, it seems less personal. But the old subject, now termed Agent, still has to be accommodated. By using the example above and putting it into Indonesian, we can illustrate the transformation and at the same time introduce the first pattern:
Banyak orang membaca buku ini. [ACTIVE] Many people read this book.
Buku ini dibaca oleh banyak orang. [PASSIVE] This book is read by many people. Regarding form, we note that the prefix meN- has disappeared and has been replaced by the prefix di-.1 Further, the 'agent', that is, those doing the action, is introduced by the word oleh, 'by'. Whenever the agent is a noun we will find the di- form of the verb. Even when no agent is actually present, as sometimes happens, we still have the prefix di-, e.g.
Buku ini sering dibaca. This book is often read. In a somewhat informal style, the word oleh can be omitted, but only if it follows its verb directly, thus:
Buku ini dibaca banyak orang. This book is read by many people. (In translation we have to keep the 'by'.) But when the agent is the third person pronoun, dia, there is a change: we still have di-, but dia takes the form -nya, which is suffixed to the verb, as in:
Buku ini dibacanya. This book is/was read by him/her. By the way, this translation may not sound very idiomatic in English, so one may choose to reproduce it in the active: 'He/she read this book'. With the pronoun 'they', mereka, we have to use
Buku ini dibaca oleh mereka. This book was read by them.
So far, with a noun or pronoun we have seen only third person agents (he, she, they, it, or a thing). With first and second person agents, the pattern changes: the didoes not occur, and the agents are put in a different place, namely in front of the verb in its base-word form, thus: Saya membaca buku ini. [ACTIVE] I read this book. Buku ini saya baca. [PASSIVE]
This book was read by me.
The pronouns kamu, 'you', kita and kami, 'we', work in exactly the same way as saya. Kamu membaca buku ini. [ACTIVE] You read this book. Buku ini kamu baca. [PASSIVE]
This book is read by you.
But if the agent pronoun is aku or engkau, it is written in a shortened form and prefixed: Buku ini kubaca. This book is read by me.
Buku ini kaubaca. This book is read by you.
These forms are more likely to be found in literature or songs. Even with third person agents, dia and mereka, this pattern can be used and is considered correct: Buku ini dia baca.
This book is read by him/her.
Buku ini mereka baca. This book is read by them.
In the examples given here using the verb membaca, we have no suffix, but the same applies to any verb, also ones with -i or -kan; these are unaffected by the change to a passive form, e.g. menyirami
mendengarkan to listen to
didengarkan listened to
Care should be taken with the pronoun 'it', because this sometimes occurs in an impersonal sense, and is associated with a passive verb in Indonesian, but without any separate word for 'it', e.g. Perlu diingat.. 'It is necessary to recall..', even where it may look like an active in English translation. Finally, we should mention that there are other kinds of passive, featuring the affixes ke- -an and ter-, which will be discussed in Lessons 21 and 22.
What Will We Watch? Menonton Apa?
provided, on condition gimana that
following (that), next
to be fond interested in
to note down for
info of, judul
curi: mencuri to steal
(coll. = ini)
dua-duanya both of them
(coll. = menonton)
rombongan group, gang
at the same time
to leave behind
Orders, requests, prohibitions Sometimes we use language to persuade others to do something or not do something, in accordance with what we want. But in order to have the desired effect, such utterances have to take account of what the relationship between the speaker and addressee is, and in what circumstances they are communicating. In some situations it may be acceptable to be blunt, whereas in others we have to be very careful not to offend somebody's feelings, and so quite a different form of expression has to be used. Beginning with the most abrupt, we have different forms of the relevant verb, where a distinction should be made between intransitive and transitive verbs. 1. With intransitive verbs, there is no change in form, e.g.
Duduk di sini! Sit here! (As is usual in imperatives, a second person pronoun, 'you', is not found.) 2. With transitive verbs, the prefix meN- is dropped, provided the action refers to a specific object, e.g.
Tutup jendela itu! Close that window! The same applies even if the object is only implied, e.g.
Dengarkan baik-baik! Listen carefully (to what I'm going to say)! 3. Otherwise the meN- is retained, that is, if there is no object or a non-specific object, e.g.
Membaca dengan teliti! Read carefully! In this case, the verb has an intransitive sense, such as 'Do reading', rather than 'Read it'. 4. Prohibitions (negative orders) are formed with the word jangan, 'don't'. Just as with orders, this can be used: With an intransitive verb, e.g.
Jangan duduk di situ! Don't sit there! Or with a transitive verb with a specific object, e.g.
Jangan tutup jendela itu! Don't close that window! (N.B. No meN-, and one particular window.) Or with a transitive verb with a non-specific object, e.g.
Jangan memasang iklan pada témbok ini! Don't post ads on this wall!
(N.B. No particular ad, just ads in general.) 5. An order with a transitive verb is often expressed by using a passive with di-. This is good, idiomatic Indonesian. It has the effect of focusing on the object concerned, which is found first, without mentioning an agent ('you'). In other words, it is impersonal and feels less blunt, like 'let it be ..-ed'. For example:
Pakaian ini dicuci, ya! Would you wash these clothes, please! (lit. 'Let these clothes be washed, okay'). The same can be done with jangan, e.g.
Hadiahmu jangan dibuka dulu! Don't open your present yet! (lit. 'Don't let your present be opened first'). Note how the noun concerned comes first in these two sentences: this is the focus. 6. Other impersonal prohibitions are expressed with passives, using the word dilarang 'forbidden', e.g. Dilarang masuk.
No entry (lit. 'It is forbidden to enter')
Dilarang merokok. No smoking (lit. 'It is forbidden to smoke')
Both of these verbs are of course intransitive. 7. The particle -lah is sometimes found in association with orders and prohibitions. It is suffixed to the verb, which occupies an initial position. Normally its function is to mark or highlight a word. Here it has the effect of
making the order less abrupt, probably because the word is lengthened by one syllable. For example: Berdirilah! Stand up! (Not just 'Stand!') Makanlah! Eat up!
There exist several words which serve to soften an order, making it more like an invitation. These are: (a) Silakan 'please'. This is used only to invite someone to do something for their own benefit, e.g.
Silakan masuk! Please come in! Also by itself:
Boléh saya masuk? May I come in? Silakan! Please! But if the verb is transitive, the prefix meN- is dropped, e.g.
Silakan ambil kuéh ini! Please take one of these cakes! (b) Tolong (lit. 'help'). This has the effect of asking someone to do something for you, as in English 'Kindly..' or 'Would you mind..', e.g.
Tolong tuliskan nama anda. Kindly write your name for me. (N.B. No meN- here.) (c) Coba (lit. 'try'). This has the effect of urging someone
to make an effort. As such it is more likely to be addressed to someone of equal or lower status (like 'Do me a favour and..'), e.g.
Coba bersihkan méja ini. Clean up this table, please. (N.B. No meN-.) (d) Harap (lit. 'hope'). This forms a formal, impersonal way of asking for something to be done, often found in official notices, e.g. Pintu harap dikunci sebelum pergi. Kindly lock the doors before leaving. Harap tenang pada jam tidur.
Kindly be quiet at rest times.
Polite requests can be formed with: (a) Minta (lit. 'ask'). This forms a polite request to do something for one, e.g.
Minta disambung dengan Pak Yoto. Please connect me with Pak Yoto. (Note the impersonal form, without the use of saya (I,
me)). (b) Mohon (lit. 'request'). This functions in the same way as minta, but is more likely to be used to address someone of high status. For example,
Mohon surat ini ditandatangani di bawah ini. Would you kindly sign the letter here at the bottom. (c) Perkenankanlah (lit. 'graciously permit'). This is used in a formal situation, for example when giving a speech in front of highly esteemed persons, e.g.
Perkenankanlah saya memperkenalkan Dékan Fakultas kami. Please allow me to introduce the Dean of our Faculty.
Twilight in Jakarta Senja Di Jakarta
to feel sleepy, be drowsy
ayam goréng fried chicken
coffee prepared by pouring boiling ground
duduk-duduk to sit around
mature, thought out
suddenly, before he knew it
to head (for)
main-main well selenggara:
implementation to come out to play organizer
Nouns and the link with verbs Apart from the many simple nouns that have already been used, Indonesian has also large numbers of nouns that are the product of various processes of affixation (just as in English, e.g. to emend: emendation; to repair: repairer, etc.). Several of these processes will be mentioned here, in particular ones which demonstrate interesting links with verbs. It is useful to be able to observe these links, as this helps us to understand the meanings of such nouns better. As well as the regularities that we can point out, there are of course also irregularities and odd cases where we may not be able to predict a meaning. The only way to be sure is to
check the dictionary and see what forms and meanings actually occur.
The affixes peN- and -an Nouns formed with these two affixes (in combination) can be compared with verbs with the prefix meN-, without a suffix, with the suffix -kan, or with the suffix -i. However, we observe that the suffix -an replaces -kan or -i, where these occur. All of these verbs will be transitive. The corresponding nouns also have a 'transitive' meaning, that is, 'the act of doing (whatever the base-word indicates)'. meN-
writing (the act, process, way of writing something)
making ( production, manufacture, construction)
development pembangunan (building, construction)
to pengumuman announcement announce
pengembangan expansion, development
to carry out
peN-~-an to irrigate
As examples of interesting variations, we can mention: penerangan 1. informing, clarifying 2. illumination, lighting (corresponding to the verbs) menerangkan 'to make clear', and menerangi 'to light up' respectively penemuan discovery, invention, find, finding (in the senses of both 'the act of finding' and 'what is found') penginapan
which corresponds to the verb menginap 'to lodge, spend the night', but means 'place for lodging', not 'the act of lodging'.
The affixes per- and -an Many nouns with these affixes correspond to intransitive verbs with the prefix ber-. They have the meaning of either the act or the result of the act referred to by the verb. For example: berbekerja belajar berjanji bertemu
to work to study to promise to meet
per-~-an pekerjaan pelajaran perjanjian pertemuan
work (Note the form here) lesson (Note the form) promise, agreement meeting development, to develop, berkembang widen, grow perkembangan growth, (cf. expansion pengembangan above)
However, there are also some nouns with per- -an that correspond to transitive verbs, and indicate the act of doing what the base-word indicates, e.g.
meNmenolong to help mengingatkan to warn, remind mencoba to try, test memohon to ask for, request
per-~-an pertolongan help peringatan warning, reminder percobaan test, trial, attempt permohonan request, appeal
Verbs with the prefix memper- also have related nouns with per- -an, e.g.: memper-
to repair, improve perbaikan
to heed, pay attention to mempertimbangkan to weigh up, consider memperhatikan
repairs, improvement attention
pertimbangan consideration, judgement
Nouns with per-~-an and a noun as base-word As well as the above, where the base-word was verbal, there is another, quite different, group of nouns, also featuring the affixes per- and -an, but this time with a noun as base-word. Some examples are found as attributes, following another noun, and so are usually translated adjectivally. These have the meaning of 'matters relating to whatever the base-word refers to'. (A similar meaning can be found with some nouns with ke- -an, see Lesson 21.) Other examples have a more general meaning, or apply to a wider area, as compared to their base-word. Examples: per-~-an banking' (e.g.séktor perbankan the banking sector) ékonomi economy perékonomian economic (affairs) industri industry perindustrian industrial bank
istilah term peristilahan terminology kamus dictionary perkamusan lexicography
Nouns with the prefix peNFirstly, nouns with this prefix attached to a verbal baseword can indicate the person who carries out the action, e.g. peNmenonton
menumpang to ride in/on penumpang passenger menduduki to occupy
Secondly, these nouns can also refer to inanimate objects that carry out the action. These are often found in apposition to another noun, qualifying it in such a way as to tell us what it does. Combinations with alat, 'instrument, tool', are common. Examples: peNmendengar
to hear alat listening device, earphones pendengar
mendinginkan to cool pendingin coolant; alat pendingin ruangan room air conditioner obat menenangkan to tranquillizer soothe penenang obat menyegarkan to tonic refresh penyegar
And thirdly, there are a few peN- nouns based on adjectives, referring to someone or something characterized by the base-word, e.g.
peNjahat bad, evil, wicked penjahat criminal muda young
youth, young person
pembesar big-shot, VIP
Nouns with the prefix peNouns formed with pe- refer to persons who carry out the action indicated by the verb. This verb is often one with the prefix ber-. For example:
berdagang to trade
pejalan (kaki) pedestrian
berenang to swim
main bulu to play badminton pebulu tangkis badminton-player tangkis
And finally, there are few cases where both peNand pe- occur, with similar meanings, e.g.
peN- and pemencintai to love rival
menyaingi to compete with, penyaing pesaing
and lover, devotee
and competitor, rival
Going to the Doctor Ke Dokter
agak artinya aso: mengaso bawa: membawa beres
rather that means to take a rest to take in order
berlibur berubah bilang darah dompet dorong: mendorong
to take a holiday to change to say, tell blood purse, wallet to push
to have an objection consulting hours
to be there, present
exhausted, worn out to have one's pocket picked
to feel, touch
resép sadar: failure menyadari disappointment saku fear seakan-akan empty sikap for long, a long supaya time tired tablét terang: face menerangkan
prescription to realize, be aware pocket as if attitude
okay youth, boy
iron (as a chemical sub stance)
kegagalan kekecéwaan ketakutan kosong lama lelah muka
so that tablet to explain
Nouns, verbs and adjectives with the affixes ke- and -an
I Nouns 1. In Lesson 20 we have shown how certain nouns correspond to particular verbs. In a similar way, we can observe how nouns are derived from adjectives, using the prefix ke- and suffix -an in combination. These nouns have an abstract meaning (cf. English nouns with the ending -ness, -ity), relating to the quality expressed
by the adjective. Some simple examples are: ke-~-an senang happy kesenangan happiness cantik pretty kecantikan prettiness, beauty jelas clear kejelasan clarity
2. Note that sometimes when an adjective is negated with tidak or tak the abstract noun is formed with both words as its base, e.g. ke-~-an tidak adil unjust ketidakadilan injustice tidak cocok incompatible ketidakcocokan incompatibility tidak jujur dishonest ketidakjujuran dishonesty
3. Similarly, there is a small group of nouns formed on the basis of intransitive verbs, e.g.
datang to come berangkat to depart naik to go up pergi to go (away) jadi to become
ke-~-an kedatangan arrival kedatangan arrival kenaikan rise, increase kepergian trip, departure kejadian event, incident
4. Further, the base-word can sometimes be a word which is itself the result of derivation, e.g. ke-~-an terbuka
pemimpin leader' (baseword pimpin) berhasil to succeed
keterbukaan openness (on the prefix ter-,see Lesson 22) kepemimpinan leadership keberhasilan success
5. There is another important group of words with the affixes ke- and -an, formed on the basis of a noun. With regard to meaning, they can be compared to some of the nouns with per- -an mentioned in Lesson 20. These words have the meaning of 'matters relating to.. (whatever the base-word indicates)'. Often they occur after another noun, and modify it, and so can be translated into English with an appropriate adjective. For example: ke-~-an masyarakat society
social, as in ilmu kemasyarakatan kemasyarakatan social sciences relating to animals, as in kehéwanan fakultas kehéwanan faculty of veterinary science
doctor kedokteran (medical)
medical, as in fakultas kedokteran medical faculty
forestry, as in departemen kehutanan department of forestry
police, as in akadémi kepolisian police academy
A somewhat different type is found in the following examples, where the base-word indicates a rank or position, and the derived form 'the area administered by..': ke-~-an menteri minister kementerian ministry duta emissary kedutaan embassy raja king kerajaan kingdom lurah headman (of village) kelurahan the area headed by a Lurah
There are various groups of words which can be mentioned here, depending on the kind of base-word involved. But all these ke-~-an forms contain the idea of 'suffering' from, or being adversely affected by something. 1. With an intransitive verb as base-word, many of these forms involve the use of a 'complement', which completes the meaning, e.g. ke-~-an mati to die
kematian to suffer a bereavement, e.g. kematian ayah to lose one's father
hilang to be kehilangan to suffer a loss, e.g. kehilangan dompét to gone, lost lose one’s wallet
2. Another group has a noun as a base-word. For example: ke-~-an copét pickpocket kecopétan to be the victim of a pickpocket banjir flood kebanjiran to get flooded, caught in a flood hujan rain kehujanan to get caught in the rain malam night kemalaman to be overtaken by night, out after dark siang daylight kesiangan to wake up after daylight, oversleep
3. The next group is based on an adjective, thus:
dingin cold kedinginan to feel cold, too cold haus thirsty kehausan to suffer from thirst lapar hungry kelaparan to be starving panas hot kepanasan to feel too hot, suffer from the heat sepi lonely, deserted kesepian to feel lonely; too quiet
4. A further group corresponds to a passive verb with diand -i. The meaning here is also passive, but with an added adverse, unintentional or accidental meaning. An agent can occur, introduced by oléh if it is a person. For example: ke—an
to be visited unexpectedly, to have unwelcome visitors
found out, caught in the act
to have something fall on one
to get infected
possessed; entered accidentally; contaminated
5. There are two verbs that should also be listed here; these do not have the meaning of 'suffering from', but 'able to be..': me-
able to be seen, visible; it looks, seems
able to be heard, audible.
The unusual form kebetulan means 'to happen to..; coincidentally, by chance'.
III Adjectives There is another derivation using the affixes ke- and -an which has an adjective or noun as its base-word, but in a reduplicated form, providing an adjective with as meaning 'resembling, having the quality of the base-word only to a certain degree'. For example: ke—an barat
yellowish (and other colours similarly)
International Relations Hubungan Internasional
The kind of kiss alluded to here, cium, consists of sniffing the cheek. Hence another meaning of the same word, 'to smell', e.g. flowers. Another term is sun (from Dutch zoen), European-style; but a noisy smacker is considered disgusting.
to kiss pinjam: (repeatedly) meminjam
to see, experience,
to be having trouble
fotokopi: memfotokopi photocopy
witness saran: menyarankan
to explore, roam sebagai
the other side (of the
course of study
to visit (to see how s.o. is)
to turn out (that)
The prefix terThere are in fact two prefixes with this form, associated
with verbs and with adjectives. The former is more important, and so we will deal with it first. Ter- with verbs These verbs have a passive meaning. There are three distinct areas of meaning to be described here: 1. Stative. These verbs denote a state, and so they contrast with a passive with di-, which denotes an action done by somebody. Note that there are no suffixes here. Some examples: terletak located (cf. diletakkan placed (by someone)) tertulis written (not oral) (cf. ditulis written (by someone)) terbuat made (cf. dibuat made (by someone)) terbuka open (cf. dibuka opened (by someone)) tertutup shut (cf. ditutup closed (by someone))
Some common words belonging in this group which are worth remembering and describe a state (without any agent) are: terkenal
tersebut abovementioned (quite frequent, pointing to what has just been said) tercatat
tertanggal dated (e.g. a letter) tercantum included, inserted, specified, stated (in a document) terlibat
interested (not to be confused with 'interesting')
terhormat respected (especially in the opening of a letter)
The following are unusual but important cases: terdiri
consisting (of: atas or dari)
tergantung depending (on: pada or dari) termasuk including
2. Accidental. The term 'accidental' indicates that an action occurs unintentionally, unexpectedly or suddenly. This suggests an action that contrasts with a deliberate one, with the prefix di-, e.g. Uangnya tertinggal di rumah.
Her money was (got) left behind at home. (That is, she forgot it.)
(Cf. Uangnya ditinggalkan di Her money was left behind at home. rumah. (That is, deliberately, so that it would be safe.))
Among accidental actions a distinction can be made between 'intransitive' ones and 'transitive' ones. a) Here are some examples of verbs indicating accidental actions or states:
to fall asleep (not just tidur to sleep, go to sleep, but to doze off when one did not intend to)
terbangun to wake up (suddenly, unintentionally) terjadi
to happen, take place, occur, come about terkejut to be startled
tergelincir to slip, skid
b) And here are some examples of verbs that can be compared with transitive ones; sometimes here the prefix ter- means 'to get . .-ed by mistake'. For example: terbawa taken by mistake termakan eaten by mistake
These verbs can have an agent, which has to be introduced by oleh ('by') when it is a pronoun; otherwise oleh is optional. As an example:
Biji itu tertelan oléh saya. I swallowed the seed by mistake. (lit. 'The seed was swallowed by mistake by me.) Other verbs that belong here are: tertangkap captured
terpengaruh influenced tertipu
Some more interesting cases are: teringat to recall, remember, have something suddenly come to mind terasa (base-word: rasa) to feel, have a sensation in a part of the body; to be felt, noticed
3. Abilitative. This term indicates verbs having the meaning 'able to be..-ed'. For example: terjual
able to be sold, salable
terdengar able to be heard, audible terlihat
able to be seen, visible
terdapat able to be obtained, available
Many of these verbs are negated, that is, they mean 'not able to be ..-ed'. With these, if a suffix -kan or -i occurs, it is retained in the ter- form. Examples: tidak terduga
unable to be guessed, unexpected, unpredictable
(cf. menduga to guess, surmise, assume, suppose) tidak terkira
unable to be estimated, incalculable
(cf. mengira to think, guess, imagine, calculate) tidak terélakkan unavoidable, ineluctable (cf. mengélakkan to shun, avoid, evade) tidak terkendalikan
uncontrollable (cf. mengendalikan to control, restrain)
tidak terkatakan indescribable, inexpressible (cf. mengatakan to tell,
tidak terkatakan tidak terobati
inform) incurable (cf. mengobati to treat)
4. Others. There are also some words with ter- that do not seem to fit into the groups mentioned. For example the verbs: tersenyum to smile tertawa to laugh
Are these to be viewed as unintentional actions? There are no corresponding forms menyenyum or
menawa. And finally, there are some words which are not verbs at all: terhadap towards, with regard to terlalu
too (to an excessive degree)
terlambat late (past the right time) terutama especially
Ter- with adjectives Not related to the above is the use of ter- with adjectives. Here this prefix serves to form a superlative, 'the most, est', but this only occurs with adjectives of two syllables, e.g. mahal
termahal most dearest
terindah most loveliest
In the case of longer adjectives, or other words that function adjectivally (e.g. menghérankan 'amazing'), the word paling has to be used, thus:
A Trip to Yogyakarta Perjalanan Ke Yogyakarta
apa padha (Jav.) Are you well? nikmat slamet?
(word indicating collectiv-
to inform, tell
pengèstunipun by/through blessing
guess, expectation pesawat
to use up, waste
flight attendant, stewardess
back (of seat)
tegak: menegakkan to put in an upright position
(space of) time
train (= kereta api) terbang
to fly (N.B. no prefix ter-)
to fold, close; to termasyhur stow
(Jav.) tikét grandmother/father
sweet, melodious, ucapan soft
The city of Yogyakarta has at its heart the Kraton or royal residence of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. It has been noted as a centre of the Javanese classical arts, such as dance, shadow theatre and of course the gamelan orchestra, but today it is crowded with students attending the many educational institutions located there, with Gadjah Mada University as the largest and oldest. Apart from this, it is a modern city with large shopping malls, many hotels, and busy traffic. The 'archaelogical remains' that Joel alludes to are, of course, the ancient temples (candi) to be found in Central Java, the best known ones being Borobudur, located about 30 km to the north-west and Prambanan not far to the east of Yogyakarta - although there are many more that are also well worth visiting. These were built from the 8th to the early 10th century, and are visible witnesses to a civilization of surprising sophistication which is called Hindu-Javanese, but was in fact inspired by both Hinduism and Buddhism. Following this period, it was continued in East Java. Sari's family are ethnic Javanese and, as such, they speak the Javanese language in normal situations. Joel is pleasantly surprised to hear it, although he may already have heard it at Sari's home in Jakarta, without being fully aware of the distinction between Indonesian and Javanese.
Various suffixes -an At first sight, when looking at an Indonesian text we might
say that the suffix -an is quite common. But in fact there are several different processes here, since -an can be found with various nouns, some adjectives, and even numerals. In some cases it is combined with reduplication. Let us review the possibilities.
Nouns 1. The suffix -an with verbal base-word a) With words in this group, there is a corresponding transitive verb, so that the noun formed in this way indicates the result of the action, and can be explained as 'apa yang di-..' ('what is ..-ed'). So the noun has a 'passive' feeling, in contrast to ones with an 'active' feeling (mentioned in Lesson 20). Some of these nouns are the product of the action, and others are what is worked on by the action. Some examples are: makan
food (apa yang dimakan)
menyumbang to contribute
b) An interesting subset of the above type consists of words that act as modifiers of another noun, telling us what is or has been done with it. For example:
to save up
what is saved, as in: uang simpanan savings
what is bought, as in: barang belian purchases
to meninggalkan leave
what is left behind, as in e.g. tinggalan buku-buku tinggalan kakek
books inherited from Grandfather séwaan what is rented, as in: rumah sewaan a rented house
c) Another group of nouns formed with -an and a verbal base-word indicates more the action than its result, although it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them. For example:
training, practice, exercise
mengingat to remember
memandang to view
pandangan view, opinion
d) And with some verbal base-words the suffix -an forms nouns with indicate either the instrument with which, or the place where, the action occurs, e.g. menggiling
membendung to dam
mill (the machine or the place where rice is milled)
to filter, strain
filter, strainer, sieve
menimbang to weigh
timbangan scales, weighing machine
2. The suffix -an can also occur with noun basewords. In this case, we find nouns that have a meaning quite similar to the base-word, or which form an expansion or development from it. For example:
pasaran the market (in an abstract sense)
peran actor, character
peranan role, part
3. There are several nouns with -an that indicate a quantity or piece of something, e.g. jajaran
a row, line, rank
pasangan a pair, couple rangkaian a series, chain timbunan a heap, pile
4. The suffix -an combined with reduplication of a noun base-word can be seen in words of two kinds: a) Words which indicate variety or generality of what is indicated by the base-word, e.g. buah
buah-buahan fruits (of various kinds)
daun-daunan foliage, leaves
vegetables (of various kinds)
In one or two cases we get what could be called a 'partial reduplication', thus:
dedaunan for daun-daunan (foliage, leaves), and
pepohonan for pohon-pohonan (trees, vegetation), but with the same meaning. b) Words that indicate either a miniature version or an imitation of what the base-word indicates, e.g. burung
burung-burungan toy bird
5. With adjectival base-words, the suffix -an derives nouns that indicate something characterized by that quality, e.g. asam
asaman pickles (in vinegar)
kotoran dirt, excrement
manisan sweets, preserved fruits, candy
Adjectives 1. In a few cases, the suffix -an can extend or modify the meaning of an adjective, e.g. murah
murahan of low quality, common
rendahan of low rank, subordinate
And reduplication can also occur, e.g. besar habis
on a big scale, grand
completely, to the utmost, all-out
2. With measures of time, weight or distance, adjectives are formed which mean 'by the ..', e.g. bulan
meteran by the metre
mingguan weekly tahunan yearly, annual
by the kilo
but: jam hour
jam-jaman by the hour, hourly
3. With noun base-words that indicate some sort of affliction, the adjective with -an means to be suffering from that, e.g.
cacingan infested with worms
jerawatan pimply, suffering from acne
kudisan suffering mangy
suffering from warts, warty
Numerals The suffix -an occurs with group numbers, with several meanings: 1. An indefinite number: puluh group of ten
puluhan tens; decades (of years)
ratus group of 100
ribu group of 1,000
Also: belasan an indefinite number between ten and twenty 2. To indicate bank-notes, e.g.: (uang) sepuluh ribuan a bank-note of Rp. 10,000
3. To indicate an approximate number, e.g. (berumur) delapan puluhan aged around 80 lima ratusan
(tahun) tiga puluhan
the (nineteen) thirties
To the Market Ke Pasar
to have a .. skin
to quarrel with each lari: dilarikan other
run away with
on the contrary
to drop in, call in
to say nothing, be pedas quiet
to keep away from
(coll.) to be given, sengat: have s.t. menyengat
to lie scattered about
to become more.
(Jav.) elder sister
to worry, be anxious
Indonesians in general are proud of the fruits that happen to grow in their particular district, and are keen for the guest or visitor to try them. There are of course a wide variety of fruits, depending on the season, and many of them are really delicious. If you do try them and show your appreciation, you'll make a friend! So asking about the local fruits is a splendid way to start up a conversation. Examples of local fruit: pisang raja, pisang
Ambon, pisang susu; nangka, mangga, manggis, rambutan, sawo. Check your dictionary! It is interesting to note that in Indonesian we have three terms for rice: padi for the plant growing in the field or when harvested but still unmilled; beras when milled; and nasi when cooked. (And in Javanese there is even a fourth one, gabah, which refers specifically to grains loose from the ear but not yet milled.) All this seems to indicate the cultural importance of this food-plant.
More intransitive verbs with berThere are a number of interesting formations all featuring the prefix ber-, some with a suffix, and of course all intransitive, that we need to present in order to complete the discussion. These have no object, and thus no passive forms.
1. Reciprocity These verbs mean doing a particular action 'to each other'. a) The main type is marked by the affixes ber- and -an. For example, showing corresponding meN-forms:
to push each other
to look at
to look at each other
to collide with
to collide with each other
Naturally, the various base-words involved here have other derived forms as well, which can all be found in the dictionary. b) Several words in this group feature reduplication, as well as the above affixes, without a perceptible
to chase each other
to hug each other
to hit each other
c) In some cases we find a word added to complete the sense, which we can call the 'complement' and which would be the object of the corresponding meN- form, e.g. mengirim surat to send letter
mereka berkirim-kiriman surat a
they sent letters to each other, corresponded
mereka berpegangan tangan
to hold a hand
they held hands
mereka bertukaran cincin
to exchange rings
they exchanged rings with each other, that is, got engaged
d) Commonly, these reciprocal forms refer to a mutual relationship or a spatial position, e.g. berhadapan
to face each other, be facing
to be face to face, opposite, be in conflict
to be alongside each other, adjacent
to be close to each other
to be far from each other
to be acquainted with each other
to border on, adjoin
to be enemies
to be boy/girlfriend
to concern, be related to
to be related to, connected with
to be related to, linked with
Note that all these words take the preposition
dengan 'with', in order to introduce the person or thing related to. For the sake of completeness, we should mention that there are two more ways to express reciprocity. Firstly, there is a construction using the word saling with the meN- form of the verb, e.g. saling mencintai
to love each other
to respect each other
Secondly, there is a rare form, consisting of the baseword combined with the meN- form of the verb. A wellknown example is: tawar-menawar
to bargain, haggle with each other
(But the form karang-mengarang does not belong here; this is in fact a noun, meaning 'writing, in general,' as a subject or activity.) 2. Random action Completely separate from the above, but also with the affixes ber- and -an, are the intransitive verbs that indicate action in a random or confused way, always with a plural subject. Some examples are:
to come from all directions
to run in all directions
to roam, wander, cruise about
to turn up from all directions
to be scattered all about
3. The affixes ber- and -kan Verbs with these affixes have as their meaning 'to have (something) as (whatever the noun base-word indicates)'. This something is the complement of the verb, not an object. Some examples are: asas
to have.. as principle, be based on the principle of.
to have. as ideal, aspire to.
dasar basis, foundation
berdasarkan to be based on.
to have . as contents, contain.
bersumberkan to have. as source, be based on.
A few examples have a verbal base-word: mandi
to have, as a bath, bathe in.
to have. as inscription, be inscribed with.
to have. covering, covered in.
4. Numerals with the prefix berCardinal numbers prefixed with ber- form qualifying words that refer to a group, e.g. berdua
(to be, form) a group of two; two together; e.g. mereka duduk berdua the two of them sat together
(to be, form) a group of three; three together; e.g. kami bertiga the three of us; berempat all four, in a group of four
But with reduplication as well, we have words that mean 'acting in a group of..', for example: berdua-dua
(to do something) in twos, two-by-two
(to do something) in threes, three at a time
(to do something) in fours
And with reduplicated numbers or measures, we find words that indicate forming or being in indefinite multiples of them, as in:
(group of) ten
in tens, by the tens, dozens by the hundreds,
of) a hundred
(group of) a thousand
by the thousands, thousands thousands of.
in kilos, kilos and kilos of.
in heaps, heaps and heaps of.
hundreds hundreds of..
National Days Hari Nasional
also known as kembang api
labuh: pelabuhan harbour
inner, spiritual maka itu
muntah: memuntahkan to spew out
kan diri darat: mendarat to land, ashore
go rebut: direbut
sangka: disangka thought (wrongly)
élak: tidak teré- inevitable
to unite, together
to unite, together
gembala: meng- to tend, herd
social grouping selisih: perselisihan
tanah animals, livestock
hitung: diperhi- taken account
dispute, disagreement land
tanam: menanam to plant into tanam: tanaman crop
honour, tetap: menetap hormat: meng- to respect hormati
astonished to settle
tetap: penetapan settlement
to tular: menular commemorate
to ward off, resist to spread disease)
It has been observed that Indonesians who know anything about Australia have a tendency to take a special interest in the aboriginal inhabitants. Perhaps this has to be seen in the light of their own experience of colonization by Europeans, leading to exploitation and eventually to a struggle for independence, rather than to any cultural affinity. On the other hand, the history of European settlement is also worthy of attention, leading up to the creation of a truly multicultural society, in which a range of Asian immigrants play an increasingly important part. By the way, a Department of Australian Studies does exist at the University of Indonesia.
Nominalization This term means 'turning something into a noun', and refers to verbs and adjectives. In other words, it is possible to make a verb or adjective into a noun. Whereas verbs and adjectives normally function as a predicate, by means of this process they can work in the same way as a noun, for example as a subject, an object, after a preposition or in a possessive relation. This is a very useful process, and is found frequently in journalistic Indonesian prose, so anyone reading newspapers or magazines is sure to come across it and must understand it. The purpose of making such a
construction is to highlight the action of the verb or the quality of the adjective, and say something about that. It is possible to distinguish two types of nominalization. The verbs involved here can be in a derived form, as well as their simple form. In this way we can take verbs with ber-, ter-, meN- or di-, and then give them the suffix -nya. This suffix has the effect of linking the new noun with a following noun. The same applies to any adjective. The following examples will illustrate this: With the adjective buruk 'bad':
Kabar burung tentang buruknya hubungan Sultan dengan isterinya sudah lama berédar. Rumours about the bad relations between the Sultan and his wife have been circulating for a long time. The quality of the adjective buruk has been changed by giving it the suffix -nya, so that it can be joined with another noun, hubungan, so that the sentence is now talking about 'the badness of the relations', which can follow the preposition tentang 'about'. With the adjective penting 'important':
Gubernur Jawa Timur menekankan pentingnya jalan tol untuk industrialisasi. The Governor of East Java stressed the importance of the toll road for industrialization. Here pentingnya is the object of the verb menekankan and can be linked with the noun jalan tol. In the following example we have both a nominalized verb and adjective:
Dipilihnya Désa Manunggal Jaya didasarkan pada besarnya potensi membangun désa tersebut. The choice of the village of Manunggal Jaya was based on the size of the potential to develop this village. The verb dipilih 'chosen' has been turned into a noun with -nya, and now means literally 'the being chosen', and can have something following in a possessive relation, namely the Desa Manunggal Jaya. (Of course this has nothing to do with the passive form with di- and -nya.) In this example, the nominalized form functions as an object:
Menteri menuntut lingkungan.
The Minister demanded obedience to (lit. the being obeyed of) the regulations regarding the environment. We could also translate as: The Minister demanded that the regulations regarding the environment be obeyed. Similarly, there are many examples with intransitive verbs, such as Menurunnya ' The decline in..'; Jatuhnya ' The fall of..'; Meningkatnya 'The rise of.'; Adanya 'the existence of..'. Some, but not all, such nominalized verbs and adjectives can be substituted with a noun with peN-~-an or ke-~-an, forms which were discussed earlier. There is a second type of nominalization, in which no
change in form takes place. Here we are dealing with intransitive and active transitive verbs only. Such verbs refer to a general activity and do not have a subject. For example:
Menganggur adalah keadaan yang menyiksa. Being unemployed is a painful condition. We could compare this with:
Pengangguran bisa menimbulkan berbagai penyakit sosial. Unemployment can give rise to various social ills.
Reduplication of verbs All verbs can undergo this process. The commonest meaning conveyed by reduplication is repetition or continuation of the action. With simple verbs there is no change in form, for example: batuk
With derived forms, however, not the whole word is doubled, only the base. But with the prefix meN-the nasal sound is retained in cases where this replaces the initial consonant. For example: berteriak
search mencari-cari to repeatedly
to keep screaming about
menulis-nulis to keep writing
In some cases, the reduplicated form contains the idea of making an effort or attempting to achieve an aim,
e.g. to menghubungkan connect
menghubung-hubungkan to attempt to make a connec tion, try to implicate
to membesarkan enlarge
membesar-besarkan to exaggerate, overemphasize, blow out of all proportion
With the negatives tidak or belum the reduplicated form suggests that the action still has not happened, contrary to expectation, e.g. to muncul appear, turn up
to still not turn up (no matter how long one waits).
With some verbs, though, reduplication gives a meaning of performing the action is a relaxed, casual, nondirected way, e.g.
berjalan duduk membaca
to go for a stroll
to sit around and relax
membacato have a relaxed read baca
walk sit sit
to have a look around, browse around
Wall Lizards Cicak
Note the difference between
bertambah, and note the word-order dilakukan pengasapan, not pengasapan dilakukan! See the Language notes on nominalization. akibat
to keep watch over kepercayaan
to have a tendency ragu-ragu to
in doubt, uncertain
(DBD) dengan demikian
in this way
Khusus Ibukota) fakta
RS (Rumah Sakit) hospital
derita: penderita sufferer DKI (Daerah
May SAW (Ar. Salallahu blessing God
Alaihi Wassalam) and peace be upon him Capital sebanyak
to the number of, by..
séhat: keséhatan health fact
séhat: penyéhatan improving health condi
(Jav.) superstition, seiring
in keeping with, in line
with sela: menyela
to interrupt, butt in
kejar: mengejar to chase, pursue
to hide, conceal oneself
kendali: pengen- control
serang: diserang assailed
casualties, deaths takhayul
to protect, be a témbok patron of
increase, tingkat: meningkat to rise
members of a religious
nalar: penalaran reasoning, logic nyamuk
resident, member of the community
The cicak, wall lizard (also called cecak), is very common not only in Jakarta, but everywhere in the country. Newcomers are sometimes surprised to see a number of them hunting the little flying insects, mainly mosquitoes, on the walls of buildings, attracted by lights at night. They are quite different from the bigger lizard called tokek which
lives in roofs and produces its typical loud tok-kek sound a number of times. Traditional beliefs and customs are sometimes termed 'superstition' by people who want to be seen as modern and science-minded, but such ideas are still in the back of the mind, as in any society, modern or otherwise. An example is the Indonesian fondness for ghost stories, also found in a printed form or even in TV dramas.
More about yang The word yang was already mentioned in Lesson 13, and was described as a relative pronoun. As such, it can be translated with 'who, which, that', where it introduces a clause giving extra information about the noun which precedes it. Note that there is no connection with the question-words 'who?' and 'which?', and also that 'who', 'which' or 'that' are sometimes omitted in English in a less formal style, but always have to be inserted in Indonesian. The following sentence provides an example:
Artikel yang dikarang Pak Sastro belum terbit. The article (that) Pak Sastro wrote hasn't appeared yet. Here the main information is: Artikel belum terbit ('The article has not yet appeared.'); the extra information is placed after artikel, and is introduced with yang. It is worth noting that the Indonesian verb dikarang is passive, even though the English 'wrote' may look like an active verb. This is because the Indonesian is focusing on artikel, and the clause means literally 'which was written by Pak Sastro', so a passive is needed.
There are two more major uses of yang which should now be introduced. The first is a construction where it functions to nominalize a verb or an adjective, that is, turn it into a noun phrase which can serve as a subject or an object. A literal translation is 'the one which', or 'the thing that', or we might translate with 'what' in the same sense. This is quite different from the use of yang as a relative pronoun, as there is no antecedent. Some examples:
What do you want?
Minta yang murah saja. Just give me a cheap one.
Here we do not know what object is being referred to, only that a choice is being made. A sentence of a somewhat different kind is the following:
Yang saya maksudkan, ialah pengangkatan guru baru. What I meant was the appointment of new teachers. Here a topic is stated, then a clarification is given. Closely related to this is a construction where yang is inserted between the subject and its verb, in order to
foreground that noun or pronoun. In order to translate this correctly, we have to say either 'It is.. which' or 'I (he, etc.) am the one who..'. Some examples are:
Dia yang saya pilih, bukan orang lain. She is the one I chose, not someone else. The particle -lah is also sometimes found here, with the function of adding further emphasis. This is written suffixed to the noun, pronoun or word-group that heads the sentence, e.g.
Agama Islamlah yang dianut kebanyakan orang Indonesia. It is Islam that the majority of Indonesians follow. The effect of this sentence is to suggest that Islam is one out of a range of possibilities: it is Islam, and not some other religion. The words agama Islam are given a degree of emphasis. So we do not simply translate: 'The majority of Indonesians follow Islam'.
Noun clauses This term is used to refer to clauses which follow a verb of saying, asking or ordering, and which are introduced by a certain conjunction and contain the contents of the statement, question or order. Let us illustrate this: 1. Following verbs of saying, telling or thinking, we use the conjunction bahwa, 'that'. (It will be clear that yang would be out of the question here, because it has a totally different usage.) However, it is true that in modern journalistic prose, writers sometimes omit bahwa, just as one can leave out 'that' in English. (Is this influence from English, or just a wish to be concise?). Example:
Dalam pidatonya Presiden menyatakan bahwa hunbungan antara Amerika dan Cina sangat penting. In his speech the President stated that relations between America and China are very important. 2. Following verbs of asking, the clause containing the content of the question is introduced with apakah, 'whether, if'. (This use of apakah is of course somewhat different from the one we saw marking a question.) Note that if you see 'if' in English you have to check: Does it mean 'whether', or 'on condition that'? In the latter case it must be rendered with Indonesian kalau (see Lesson 27). Example:
Joel ingin tahu apakah emailnya diterima oléh Sari. Joel is wondering whether Sari has recieved his email. 3. Following verbs of ordering, urging or appealing, we use the conjunction supaya or agar (there is no difference), 'that' (in the sense of 'so that', please see Lesson 27). Example:
Pak Diréktur menghimbau karyawannya supaya ikut memelihara lingkungan kerja. The Director called on his personnel to join in caring for the work environment.
Demonstrations Unjuk Rasa
campaign, action berani
freedom (coll.) able to
bijak: kebijakan policy
to charge, collect
to be equally
to express réaksi oneself
gerak: bergerak to move
reaction, response Rector ( president of a
for a moment
surat decree, directive keputusan (SK)
in particular, tentang: specifically menentang
laku: perlakuan treatment luar biasa
to take place to oppose
the only thing left to do is..
the mass, crowd uang pangkal
early in morning
WIB = Waktu
pihak berkuasa the authorities
to demand fee
announcement main West Time
The extent of student activism in Indonesia is striking. Much energy is expended in pushing social or political causes
that seem worthwhile to students and their organizations. It is true that the fall of the repressive Soeharto regime was at least in part due to pressure from this quarter, showing that the exercise of this kind of power is not futile. In fact, since that time, the freedom of expression enjoyed by students and workers has been much exercised. However, this is not a new phenomenon, when one recalls how it was the Indonesian youth which promulgated the Sumpah Pemuda (Oath of the Youth) as long ago as 1928, and which also played a key part in the Proclamation of Independence in 1945.
More about conjunctions Apart from the ones already mentioned in Lesson 26,
Indonesian has a wide range of conjunctions, which serve to link clauses in the process of building up longer sentences. Alongside a main clause, we can add further information or modify it in several different ways. The clause introduced by the conjunction can occur either before or after the main clause; if it is placed in front, it receives more attention. We can list several types of conjunction; ones listed on the same line have the same meaning, and can be varied for stylistic reasons. 1. Time Conjunctions of time are:
sesudah, setelah after sejak
An important point to note here is that ketika and waktu, 'when', refer to an event in the past. If 'when' refers to something yet to happen (in the future), it must be translated with kalau (etc.) (see below). And naturally this 'when' has nothing to do with the question-word 'when?', which is kapan?.
2. Condition Conjunctions of condition allude to events that have not yet occurred, but may or will occur, provided a certain condition is fulfilled. They include: kalau, jika, jikalau
bila, apabila, bilamana
when, whenever, if
seandainya, andaikata, sekiranya supposing that, if
One observes that 'when' and 'if' are quite close in Indonesian. 3. Reason Conjunctions of reason include:
sebab, oleh sebab karena, karena
oleh because, because of the fact that (but in Malaysian: kerana)
because lantaran, gara- because (journalistic style only) gara
4. Purpose The conjunctions are: supaya, agar
5. Concession There are a number of conjunctions all of which can be translated with 'although, even though': meskipun walaupun
sekalipun biarpun sungguhpun kendati, kendatipun
6. Others lest, in case, (in the hope/fear) that confused with
kalau-kalau lest, in case, (in the hope/fear) that sehingga
so that, to the extent that, as a result of which (N.B. not to be supaya, which is also translatable with 'so that')
whereas, whilst, notwithstanding the fact that
seakan-akan, as if, as though seolah-olah
Finally, there are a few cases where a word looks like a conjunction, but is in fact a preposition, preceding a word-group consisting of a nominalized verb and other words dependent on it, for example: With untuk:
Kita akan berusaha untuk mengatasi segala kesulitan. We will endeavour to overcome every difficulty. (Cf. the use of untuk in the sense of 'for'.) With dengan:
Dia berhasil meraih gelar dengan memperhatikan petunjuk-petunjuk dosénnya. She succeeded in attaining the degree by paying attention to her lecturer's instructions. (Cf. the use of dengan in the sense of 'with'.)
The Secret Trumpet Trompét Rahasia
The RT mentioned here is the smallest neighbourhood organization, consisting of a group of neighbours, headed by a 'Pak RT', its elected chairman. A number of RT come under the RW (Rukun Warga, Citizens' Organization, formerly called RK, Rukun Kampung). The function of the RT is to promote social cohesion and deal with any causes of friction. Playing a trumpet loudly in the house would be likely to cause irritation with the neighbours, bearing in mind that their walls are very close. The system of RT and so on originates from the period of the Japanese occupation (1942-45), when it served as a means of surveillance.
aku: mengaku to admit, confess
jauh di mata absence makes the dekat heart
bintang tamu guest star
to become deeper
tegur: ditegur warned, criticized
to own, possess
RT = Rukun
tiup: meniup to blow
Tetangga sahabat: persaha-
Some other structures 1. makin..makin.. Two adjectives can occur in what has been called a 'correlative relationship' (Sneddon 1996:352). This means that as the degree of the first adjective increases, so too does the second. This can be translated with: 'The more.., the more..'. Often the first clause contains the word lama, 'long (of time)', suggesting that as time goes by, the degree of the second adjective increases. Some examples are:
Anaknya makin besar makin pandai. The more his child grows up the cleverer he/she becomes.
Penduduk Indonesia makin lama makin banyak. The inhabitants of Indonesia keep on increasing. (lit. 'the longer the time, the more')
Iklim Australia makin lama makin kering. The climate of Australia is getting drier and drier. 2. baik.. maupun.. This construction functions to link two nouns or phrases, in such a way as to suggest that what is said applies to both items. It is translated with 'Both. and..', or, with a negative, 'Neither.. nor..' Examples:
Baik di desa maupun di kota minyak tanah sudah mahal. Both in the country and in the city kerosene has become expensive.
Baik prosa maupun puisi Indonesia énak dibaca. Both Indonesian prose and poetry are a pleasure to read. (Note the passive verb-form here, lit. 'to be read'.) 3. baru Apart from its common function as an adjective, meaning 'new, recent, fresh, modern', this word also has an adverbial use which sometimes leads to confusion and is worth mentioning here. In this use it does not describe a noun, but modifies the verb, and can be translated with 'only, not until, not before'. For example:
Baru jam dua malam dia masuk kamar tidurnya. She only entered her bedroom at 2 a.m. And a well known advertising slogan runs:
Ini bir baru. Ini baru bir. This is a new beer. This is what you call beer. (Lit. 'only this is beer - everything till now wasn't real beer.') 4. Ways of opening a sentence In both spoken and written Indonesian, there is a favoured method of opening a sentence, using one word (generally), following by a pause (or a comma), as an introduction to the main statement. There are several different types, e.g. Suggesting a consequence from, or a contrast with, the preceding sentence: Maka.., (or Maka itu,..) Consequently., And so, Sebab, ..
For that reason,. This is because
Nevertheless, . Even so, .
However, . All the same, .
With an adjective, nominalized by suffixation with -
nya: Anehnya,.. The funny (odd) thing is Lucunya, .. The amusing thing is, . Sayangnya, . Unfortunately, ..
Or nominalized with yang:
Yang menghérankan, .. The amazing thing is, ..
With a noun, again suffixed with -nya: Soalnya, .
The problem is, .
Pokoknya, . The main thing is, . Misalnya, .. For example, . (an example is.) Maksudnya, . That is to say, . (the intention is.) Alasannya, . The reason (motive) for that is, . Buntutnya, .. The result (outcome) is, .
Using a verb without a subject, translated with an English present participle (-ing): Mengingat ., . Bearing in mind that . Melihat ., .
In view of the fact that
Merasa ., .
Feeling that ., .
5. Foregrounding, or the 'split subject' When a subject consists of a group of words, sometimes this can be split up in such a way as to 'foreground' part of it. This is done by placing the part to be highlighted at the beginning of the sentence in order to receive more attention, separating it from the rest of the subject with a pause or comma, which is then suffixed with the possessive -nya to preserve the link. We hear a rising intonation before the comma, suggesting 'Wait, there's more!' Some examples:
Rumah ini, besarnya hanya 20 meter persegi. The size of this house is only 20 square metres. (Cf. Besar rumah ini hanya 20 meter persegi.)
Orang kaya itu, rumahnya berjumlah dua puluh buah. That rich man's houses are twenty in number. (Cf. Rumah orang kaya itu berjumlah dua puluh
buah.) Racun tadi, cara menghilangkannya begini. The method of removing this poison is as follows. (Cf. Cara menghilangkan racun tadi begini.) In each case, we could translate: 'As for.., ..' in order to render this foregrounding.
Appendix How do you say it in Indonesian?
This appendix contains a list of approximately 100 highfrequency English words with their Indonesian translations, covering a range of phrasal verbs and other idioms. It is, of course, not exhaustive. It aims to assist an Englishspeaking student who wants to know how to say or write a particular word in Indonesian. Experience in teaching has shown that it may be difficult to make a choice among the various renderings to be found in a dictionary, and there is often a tendency to be too literal when translating. The method is to ask oneself: 'What does this word actually mean?' When we reflect on this, several different meanings may present themselves, each with quite different translations into Indonesian. If you get it wrong, the results may be amusing or nonsensical! Of course, we encourage the learner always to double-check in a good dictionary, in order to survey all the possible forms. But in no circumstances should an electronic translation machine be used; as an experiment we looked up the English idiom
'on the spur of the moment' - you know what that means ('without a second thought, spontaneously'), and certainly not the literal translation di atas pacu saat. A final hint is to remember the subtle differences that may exist between colloquial and formal expressions, because we need to take these into consideration when choosing the best equivalent in good Indonesian. Special thanks are due to Katherine Davidsen, Johansjah Sugianto and Linda Hibbs for reading this list and offering valuable suggestions. In many cases this has no translation, e.g. (where indefiniteness is intended): afflicted by an eye disease diserang penyakit mata She's a clever girl. Dia
gadis pandai. But where it means 'one': Se-: Rp. 25,000 a packet Rp 25.000 sebungkus Seorang: a medical student seorang mahasiswa
kedokteran Sebuah: a large truck sebuah truk besar a kind of sebangsa/semacam/sejenis it's a pity/shame sayang it's a pleasure senang sekali it's an honour merupakan kehormatan
it's an insult kurang ajar! See can, could: bisa, dapat. Also: mampu able to afford: He can buy a car. Dia
mampu membeli mobil. Sempat to get the chance, succeed in, get to, manage to, still be able to: They were able to nab the thief at the crossroads.
Pencuri sempat diciduk di perempatan jalan. able [adj.] 'having ability' cakap, trampil, ber-bakat about (= approximately) kira-kira: about eleven o'clock
kira-kira jam sebelas (= almost) hampir: It's about time. Sudah hampir waktunya. about to (= going to, on the point of) baru akan; (= planning to) berniat untuk (= concerning) tentang, mengenai, perihal (= around, here and there) verb with ber-~-an: to wander about berkéluyuran to be spread about bersérakan to cruise about berkeliaran
to fly about beterbangan to run about berlari-larian (= because of?) karena What about..? Bagaimana kalau..? to set about (a job) menggarap, mulai menger-jakan after [adv., conj.] sesudah, setelah (before verbs) habis,
selesai after all (= as you might expect) nota béne; (having considered) akhirnya; anyhow bagaimana pun
(juga), toh, toh ada gunanya to be after (= look for, pursue) mencari, mengejar to take after (= resemble) mirip to follow after menyusul, mengikuti After you! Silakan duluan! all alone seorang diri all together bersama-sama All right! (= okay!) Baiklah! all over the place (= everywhere) di mana-mana
all gone habis semuanya all the time terus-menerus, selalu all at once (= suddenly) tiba-tiba all but (= almost) hampir, nyaris (to give a negative connotation) all over (= finished) selesai in all (= in total) semuanya most of all paling Is that all? Ini saja? Itu saja? at all: Can I help you at all? Apakah (sekiranya) saya
bisa bantu? not.. at all tidak..sama sekali all the more.. makin lama makin.. all night semalam suntuk all-important terpenting all-Indonesia se-Indonesia Sometimes not translated: Are there any letters? Apakah ada surat? I haven't got any. Saya tidak punya / Tidak ada. In combinations:
anywhere (= in any place) di mana saja anywhere (= to any place) ke mana saja anything apa saja anyone siapa saja any one (out of several) mana saja any time kapan saja any time now (= very soon) tidak lama lagi / da-lam
waktu singkat any more (= no longer) lagi: He doesn't work here any more. Dia sudah tidak bekerja di sini lagi. Are you any better? Apakah sudah merasa lebih baik? as (= in the capacity of) sebagai: as a linguist. sebagai
ahli bahasa.. (= like) seperti: as usual seperti biasa (as. as, in comparisons) se-: as high as a mountain
setinggi gunung as far as (= until, up to) sampai: as far as the main road
sampai jalan besar as far as (= to the extent that) se-: as far as I know setahu
as for (= concerning) kalau as good as (= almost) praktis / boléh dikatakan as long as (= while) selama as long as (while there's still time) mumpung as one (= all together) serentak / sekaligus as soon as begitu as (= when) ketika as (= because) karena as though seolah-olah / seakan-akan as to (= regarding) tentang / mengenai to ask a question tanya, bertanya: May I ask your name?
Boleh tanya nama anda? to ask about bertanya tentang / menanyakan to ask oneself bertanya pada diri sendiri (cf. to wonder
bertanya-tanya dalam hatinya) to ask out (= invite) mengajak berkencan to ask for minta (= request) mohon a big ask (= challenge) tantangan besar for the asking tinggal minta saja
I ask you! (exclamation of amazement, = how is it possible!) Bagaimana mungkin! to be asking for trouble mengundang masalah (terlalu
berani) bad (in general; evil, wicked) buruk: bad weather cuaca
buruk (= ugly) jelék (= impolite) tak pantas (= rotten) busuk (= unwell) kurang énak / kurang séhat (= naughty) nakal (= criminal) jahat bad luck nasib malang not bad (= pretty good) lumayan / boléh juga to be bad for (= disadvantage) merugikan to be bad at kurang pandai bad-tempered cepat marah (time) sebelum
(in the past, formerly) dulu before long (in the future, soon) tidak lama lagi, sebentar
lagi (in advance of) lebih dulu / duluan (place, = in front of) di depan / di muka in the presence of
di hadapan to have before one (= face) menghadapi, berhadapan
dengan big (= large) besar on a big scale besar-besaran to think big berpikir secara besar-besaran / mengejar
ambisi (= grown up) déwasa to talk big (= brag) membual big (= elder) sister / big (= elder) brother kakak big-hearted (magnanimous) besar jiwa / pemurah too big kebesaran a big shot pembesar big-time criminal penjahat kelas kakap
big toe jempol kaki, ibu jari kaki both (of them) kedua-duanya / dua-duanya / keduanya both (the group of two) kedua: both children ke-dua anak
itu both.. and.. baik.. maupun.. by (introducing the agent of a passive verb) oléh. For example: Email Joel diterima oléh Sari. Joel’s email was received by Sari. by (= at) di: by the side of the road di pinggir jalan by (= via, by way of, through) léwat by (= with) dengan: What do that expression? Apa yang
dengan ucapan itu? by the hour jam-jaman by the day harian by the kilo kiloan by law menurut hukum by agreement menurut persetujuan by oneself (= alone) sendirian
you mean by
by the way, .. omong-omong, ngomong-ngomong, .. by far jauh by and large (= generally) pada umumnya by degrees (= gradually) sedikit demi sedikit by day siang hari; by night malam hari by all means (= certainly) pasti by no means (= definitely not) sama sekali tidak can, able to, capable of; to know how to, manage to bisa can, able to, capable of; -able, -ible dapat Note: These two 'modal words' are very close in meaning, and sometimes interchangeable, but not always. Bisa includes being mentally able, while dapat (perhaps influenced by its second meaning, 'to get, obtain') includes being physically capable of doing something. can, may, allowed to boléh (Note: This is quite different from Malaysian Malay) EXAMPLES: His grandchild can walk (already). Cucunya sudah
Were you able (did you manage) to sleep? Bisa tidur? Of course you can (it's quite possible). Bisa saja. It can be said that (we may say that). Boleh dikatakan
(bahwa).. It can't be predicted. Tidak dapat diramalkan. What can you do? Apa boléh buat! (idiom) May I ask a question? Boleh tanya, ya. Can do! Bisa! to call (= summon) memanggil to call (= telephone) menelepon to call (= name) menyebut: What do you call this? Ini
disebut apa? to be called (= named) bernama to call back menelepon kembali to call for (= require) memerlukan; (= suggest, propose, call on) menyerukan to call forth (= cause) menimbulkan / menyebab-kan to call off (= cancel) membatalkan to call in (= drop in) mampir / singgah to call on (= visit) mengunjungi / berkunjung ke
to call out (= shout) berteriak to call together (= gather) mengumpulkan to call up (troops) mengerahkan call-button kenop panggilan call-girl wanita panggilan to care about (= pay attention to) mempedulikan to not care (= be indifferent to) tidak peduli to care for (= take care of, keep) memelihara to care for (= arrange, manage, run) mengurus to care for (= keep an eye on, be responsible for) menjaga to care for (= attend to, look after, tend) mengasuh to care for (= nurse, treat) merawat to care for (= like) suka: I don't care for dogs. Saya tidak
suka anjing. to take care (= be careful, attentive) berhati-hati to not care (= not mind, have no objection)
tidak berkeberatan cares (= worries) kesusahan with care (= accurately) dengan teliti
to carry (in general) membawa (a heavy burden, with others) menggotong (a load, on the shoulder) memikul (on the back or hip) menggéndong (in the hand, hanging down) menjinjing to carry (= transport) mengangkut to carry off (= abduct, steal) membawa lari to carry off (= seize, claim) merebut to carry on (= continue) meneruskan / melanjutkan to carry out (= implement) melaksanakan to carry through (= complete) menyelesaikan to get carried away (= forget oneself) lupa diri clear (= distinct, explicit) jelas (= evident, obvious) terang (of weather) cerah (of road) kosong (of liquid, sky) jernih
(= transparent, limpid) bening to clear (clean up, rubbish) membersihkan (debts) melunasi (goods, in a sale) mengobral (= to approve) mengesahkan (the table) mengangkat makanan to clear off (= run away) membolos to clear up (weather, = stop raining) menjadi terang to come (= arrive) datang to come about (= happen) terjadi to come across (= find, meet) menemukan to come along (= join in) ikut to come back (= return) kembali to come between (= separate) memisahkan to come down (= descend) turun ke bawah; (= become less) berkurang to come forward (= advance) tampil ke muka to come from (= originate from) berasal dari to come in (= enter) masuk
come off (= come succeed) berhasil / jadi
to come out (= emerge) keluar; (of publications) terbit; (of flowers) mekar to come to (= add up to) become conscious) sadar lagi
to come within (= be included in) tercakup Come on! (inviting, urging) Ayo! Come on now! (protesting) Jangan begitu! Sudahlah! NOTE: Many different idioms as well as grammatical functions in English. to be doing (= engaging in an activity): What are you doing? Kamu sedang apa?/ Kamu sedang berbuat
apa? to do (= work at) bekerja:
What do you do?
Anda bekerja sebagai apa? to do about it (= tackle, deal with) menggarap, menindak: We should do something about it. Harus
kita garap, harus kita tindak. That will do (= be enough) Sudah cukup
do (emphatic function): You do understand, don't you? Kamu mémang mengerti, kan? It did turn up in the end. Akhirnya muncul juga. In questions and negatives, no separate translation! Do you understand? Apakah mengerti? No, I don't. Tidak (mengerti). to do away with (= remove) menghilangkan to do up (= repair) merénovasi; done up (= decorated)
berhias could do with (= needs) perlu / membutuhkan: It could do with some paint. Perlu dicat. to do without berjalan tanpa, mengalami kekurangan done (food) masak done in (= exhausted) kecapaian to have to do with berkaitan / berhubungan / bertalian
dengan to end (= to come to an end) berakhir to end (= bring to an end) mengakhiri to end it all (= commit suicide) membunuh diri end [noun] (= extremity) ujung: at the end of the street di
ujung jalan in the end (= finally) akhirnya the end of the line titik penghabisan the bitter end saat terakhir at the end of one's tether putus asa at the end of the day (= after considering everything)
setelah mempertimbangkan semuanya to make ends meet belanja dengan uang seadan-ya for days on end berhari-hari terus-menerus at a loose end, tidak bertujuan / tidak tahu ke mana the ends of the earth ujung dunia / ke mana saja That's the end of it! Habis perkara! few (= not many) sedikit very few sedikit sekali no fewer than paling sedikit / tidak kurang dari a few (= several) beberapa quite a few cukup banyak few and far between jarang sekali
to feel merasa: I feel quite well. Saya merasa cukup
séhat. I feel it's time to go home. Saya rasa sudah waktunya
untuk pulang. it feels, rasanya: It feels nice. Rasanya énak. It feels as if it's going to rain. Rasanya seperti akan
hujan. to feel (= of an object) berasa: The kettle feels hot. Teko
berasa panas. to feel (= have a bodily sensation) terasa: Her feet feel cold. Kakinya terasa dingin. to feel like (= want to) ingin to feel (= touch, grope) meraba to feel for (= sympathize with) merasa kasihan pada to feel hurt (= offended) tersinggung I feel (= think) that saya kira.. to feel at home betah, kerasan
Time: for a moment sebentar
for several months selama /untuk beberapa bulan for eight years selama delapan tahun for years bertahun-tahun for a long time lama for good untuk selama-lamanya for the time being untuk sementara for (= to, used for) untuk: money to buy food uang untuk
membeli makanan for (= for the sake of) demi: for your health's sake demi
kesehatanmu for (= on behalf of) bagi for (= toward, of feelings) terhadap: feelings of respect for
rasa hormat terhadap as for (= regarding) kalau / bagi word for word kata demi kata for sale akan dijual for fun iseng for a joke tidak sungguh-sungguh, bercanda for nothing (= without paying) gratis / tanpa dibayar; (= in vain) dengan sia-sia thanks for terima kasih atas to pay for membayar to pay for schooling membayar uang sekolah
to hope for mengharapkan to exchange for menukar dengan to have fun (= to enjoy oneself, have a good time) bersenang-senang / bermain-main just for fun (not serious) main-main saja to be fun (= enjoyable) menyenangkan; (= exciting)
asyik to make fun of (= mock) mengolok-olokkan / mengéjék to get (= obtain) mendapat to get (= become) menjadi: To get dark Menjadi gelap Movement in various directions: to get in/on (modes of transport) naik to get off/out (transport) turun to get there (= arrive) tiba / sampai: We got there at 4.
Kita tiba (di sana) jam empat. to get back kembali to get home pulang / tiba di rumah to get away (= leave) berangkat; (= escape) lo-los to get across menyeberang to get behind (= be late) terlambat
to get beyond meléwati to be getting on (in years) lanjut usia to
get on bagaimana: How are you getting on? Bagaimana kabarnya? How did you get on?
Bagaimana hasilnya? to get over (= recover from) sembuh dari; (= surmount)
mengatasi to get together berkumpul to get up (= from sleep) bangun, (from a sitting position)
bangkit to give (= grant, provide, add) memberi to give (= contribute) menyumbang to give (= pay) membayar to give (= hold, a talk, party etc.) mengadakan to give and take saling mengalah give away (= donate) menghadiahkan mendermakan, mengamalkan to give back (= return) mengembalikan to
to give birth melahirkan / bersalin
to give in (= admit defeat) menyerah / mengalah to give off (= emit) mengeluarkan to give out (= distribute) membagi-bagikan to give up (= stop, e.g. smoking) berhenti; (= abandon)
meninggalkan give or take a few (= approximately) kurang-lebih given to (= have a tendency to) cenderung given (= a certain) tertentu I give up! (= to have learned one's lesson) Kapok aku! to go (general) pergi to go (= leave) berangkat to go (= be lost) hilang to go (= travel, move) berjalan to go (= be allowed) boléh to go (= become) menjadi: S. is going mad. S.menjadi
gila. to go across menyeberang to go after mengikuti / menyusul to go along ikut serta
to go around [trans.] mengelilingi / berédar, berkeliling [intrans.] to go away pergi; berangkat; hilang to go back kembali to go before mendahului to go by léwat to go down turun; (= become less) berkurang to go in masuk to go into memasuki to go on with (= continue) meneruskan to go out keluar; (= be extinguished) padam to go through (= experience) mengalami to go together/with (= fit) cocok to go up naik; (= increase) meningkat good (general: quality, condition, character) baik to taste, feel good énak to have a good time bersenang-senang How good to see you! Senang sekali bertemu dengan
kamu! to be good at pandai to be good for berguna untuk as good as (= almost) as good as new dapat dikatakan
baru? good-hearted baik hati good-looking cantik (girls), ganteng, cakap (boys) Good luck! Selamat! Sukses! Good morning Selamat pagi! a good deal (= quite a lot) cukup banyak Good heavens! (in surprise) Aduh! Ya Allah! (Isl.) to happen (= to occur) terjadi: What's happened? Apa
yang terjadi? (by coincidence) kebetulan: It happened to be a Friday. Kebetulan hari Jumat. (possibly, might) kiranya, barangkali: Do you happen to know her name?
Apakah (kiranya) kamu tahu namanya? to happen on (= to find) menemukan, kedapatan to have happen to one (= to experience something) ditimpa, kena: What happened to you? Kamu kena
apa? Kamu kenapa? (kena + apa); (= to get lost) What's happened to my watch? Jamku hilang ke mana? as it happens.., sebenarnya..kebetulan hard (not soft) keras: a hard mattress kasur keras to work hard bekerja keras hard liquor minuman keras (difficult, troublesome) sukar: It's hard to find work. Sukar
mencari pekerjaan. (difficult, tough, complex) rumit (complicated, intricate) sulit (hard to find, get; burdensome, troublesome) susah (hard to bear, serious, severe) berat hard up kekurangan uang / miskin hard and fast mutlak hard cash uang kontan hard-headed keras kepala hard-hearted keras hati hard luck nasib malang
hard of hearing susah mendengar to have (= to be there) ada: Do you have a cat? We do!
Apakah ada kucing? Ada! Ber-: Do you have a family? (= are you married?) Apakah sudah berkeluarga? to have (= own) punya: They have two cars. Mereka punya dua buah mobil. the owner yang punya to have (= possess) mempunyai: the ones who have the right. yang mempunyai hak.. to have (= cause, order) menyuruh: Just have it pulled out! Suruhlah dicabut saja! NOTE: 'has/have.-ed' forms a past tense in English; use sudah in Indonesian: Have you eaten? Sudah
makan? Many idioms with 'have', e.g. to have breakfast makan sarapan to have a baby melahirkan anak to have a cold pilek to have a fright terkejut to have a good time bersenang-senang
to have an inspiration mendapat ilham here (= this place) sini; (= in this place) di sini; (= to this place) ke sini Here you are! (giving something) Silakan! Here's the room. Ini kamarnya. Here it is! Inilah dia! my friend here teman saya ini here and there sana-sini Here goes! Mari! Coba saja! up to here in work sampai tenggelam dalam ke-sibukan how? Bagaimana?: How does it work? Bagaimana
kerjanya? How are things going? Bagaimana kabarnya? how (= the way, method) caranya: This is how you do it. Begini caranya. how much? Berapa?: How much does it cost? Berapa
harganya? how many? Berapa?: How many are there? Ada berapa?
how often? (= how many times?) Berapa kali? How many times a week? Berapa kali seminggu? How far? Berapa jauhnya?: How far is it from here?
Berapa jauhnya dari sini? How! (betapa adj. + -nya): How big he's grown! Betapa besarnya! Alangkah (adj. + -nya): How beautiful it is! Alangkah indahnya! how much betapa: She doesn't know how much I love her. Dia belum tahu betapa saya mencintainya. how is it that.., How come..? (= why?) kenapa / mengapa? How about..? Bagaimana kalau..: How about we eat out tonight? Bagaimana kalau kita makan di luar malam ini? How are you going? (= how are you?) Apa kabar? How will we go? (= by what mode of transport?) Kita
naik apa? if (= on condition that) kalau, jika: If I get the opportunity.
Kalau ada kesempatan .. (= whether) apakah: It's not clear if the conference will go
ahead or not. Belum jelas apakah konferénsinya
akan berlangsung atau tidak. If only! (= just imagine) bayangkan! (I wish it was) mudah-mudahan if for instance (= supposing) (kalau) seandainya, seumpamanya even if kalau sekalipun a bit iffy kurang meyakinkan See also that. in (location) di: in town di kota; in the country di
pedésaan (time) in time (= punctual) pada waktunya; (= gradually)
lama-kelamaan in a week's time (future) seminggu lagi in two hours (time taken) dalam waktu dua jam in the dry season pada musim kering / kemarau in my opinion menurut pendapat / hémat saya in case of fire kalau ada pembakaran in these circumstances dalam keadaan ini in the context/framework of dalam rangka
in the name of atas nama in writing secara tertulis to be in (= present, at home) ada; (= to have arrived)
sudah sampai/masuk ins and outs seluk-beluks Often no direct translation needed in Indonesian. EXAMPLES: IT'S HOT. Panas. It's raining. Hujan. It's a pity. Sayang. It hurts. Sakit. It's a long way. Jauh. It doesn't matter. Tidak apa-apa. It's important. Penting. How much is it? Berapa harganya? Do you like it? Apakah suka? I don't believe it! Saya tidak percaya / masak! Drink it up! Minumlah! Don't worry out it. Jangan kuatir. What can you do about it? Apa boléh buat?
just (= only) saja: just a little/a bit sedikit saja; Just joking! Main-main saja! just baru: The program's just begun. Acaranya baru
mulai. just now (= a moment ago) tadi / baru-baru ini; (= only recently) baru saja just (= exactly) tepat: Just in time. Tepat pada waktunya. (= really) benar-benar: It's just great here! Benar-benar
senang di sini! (with imperative) saja: Just look! Lihat saja! just [adj.] (= fair) adil just as / like seperti just in case, lest (= as a precaution) untuk jaga-
jaga/supaya jangan to know (= be acquainted with) kenal dengan (a person); (= be familiar with) kenal akan (matters) to get to know mengenal
to know (= identify, recognize) mengenali known (= well known, recognized) terkenal to know by sight kenal tanpa tahu nama orang to know (= understand, be well informed) tahu; (= to find out about) mengetahui to know no bounds (= unlimited) tanpa batas to know the ropes (= be experienced) berpengalaman to not want to know (= don't care) tak peduli You-know (= can't mention the word) anu Goodness knows! (= I have no idea) Kurang tahu saya! to learn ([intrans.], = to do study about) belajar: to learn Javanese belajar bahasa Jawa; ([trans.] = to study) mempelajari: to learn how to peel a mango
mempelajari caranya mengupas mangga (= hear, find out about) mendapat kabar bahwa /mendengar / mengetahui ( = learn by heart, memorize) menghafalkan learned terpelajar / berilmu learning (noun) (= science) pengetahuan / ilmu
pengetahuan; (= being learned) keterpelajaran to leave (= to depart, set out, go away) berangkat, pergi,
keluar dari (= to leave behind, abandon) meninggalkan left behind (accidentally) tertinggal the only thing left to do is.. tinggal.. (= to allow) membiarkan: Don't leave the door open.
Janganlah membiarkan pintunya terbuka. (= to postpone) menunda: Leave it till year. Tundalah sampai tahun depan. (= to bequeath) mewariskan
(= to hand over, surrender) menyerahkan: I leave it to you! Terserah kepada kamu! (= to leave over, remaining) menyisakan; left over
tersisa to take leave (= say goodbye) minta diri, berpamitan (= to have a holiday) mengambil cuti sick leave cuti sakit by your leave (= permission) dengan izin anda
to leave off (= cease) berhenti to leave out (= remove, omit) menghapus; (= neglect, fail to include) mengabaikan, tidak me-masukkan It leaves a lot to be desired! (= is very unsatisfactory)
sangat tidak memuaskan to let (= allow) membiarkan: Let it be! (forget it) Biarlah! let's.. Mari..: Let us / me.. Biar kita / saya..; (= come on!) Ayo! to let be (= not interfere) jangan diganggu to let down (= disappoint) mengecéwakan to let fly (= explode, in anger) meledak to let go (= release) melepaskan to let off (= forgive) memaafkan; (fireworks) menyalakan to let up (= subside, wind, rain) reda let alone apalagi / jangankan to lie (= be in a lying position) berbaring / terbaring (= to be located) terletak (= to be found) terdapat
(= to be present) berada (= to be buried) terkubur (= to tell a lie) berbohong to lie in (= sleep late) tidur sampai siang to like suka: I like eating chocolate. Saya suka makan coklat.; I like you! Saya suka kamu! (= be attached to, fond of, have a preference for) menyukai: whatever you like sesuka hatimu like (= resembling) seperti: To swim like a fish.
Berenang seperti ikan. (= such as) seperti: a paper like Kedaulatan Rakyat Surat kabar seperti K.R. like ([adj.] = of the same) se-: like-minded sependapat and the like dan lain-lain, dan sebagainya like this begini like that begitu to live (= be alive) hidup: still living/ alive masih hidup (= have a way of life) hidup: to live according to one's
religion hidup sesuai dengan agama (= to reside) tinggal / bertempat tinggal: Sari lives in Pasar Minggu. Sari tinggal di Pasar Minggu. live [adj.] hidup: live fish ikan hidup; live music musik
hidup to live together hidup bersama, tinggal bersama to live apart hidup terpisah to live on hidup dari / dengan to live through (= experience) mengalami to live up to hidup sesuai dengan to live from hand to mouth hidup Senin-Kemis to look (at) (= see) melihat (= have the appearance of) kelihatan (look at and notice; consider) memandang to look about / around melihat-lihat to look toward, in the direction of menoléh (back: ke belakang; to the right: ke kanan etc.) to look for mencari
to look into (= examine) memeriksa, mengusut to look on (= consider as) menganggap to look up to (= respect) menghormati, mencontoh Look, it's like this. Begini, ya.. Look out! Awas! looks (noun) (= appearance) rupa: (= face) wajah good looks (= smart appearance) ketampanan; (male) kegantengan; (female) kecantikan to love cinta pada / mencintai: (e.g. mother for child)
sayang pada to fall in love jatuh cinta to be in love with jatuh cinta dengan to make love (= have sex) bersanggama / bersetubuh (= be in love with each other) berkasih-kasihan, bercinta I'd love to! Senang sekali! love [noun] cinta (passion) asmara: love-song lagu asmara, lagu cinta (affection, devotion) kasih / kasih sayang
(beloved) kekasih; (girlfriend, boyfriend) pacar (abstract) kecintaan (e.g. for homeland) (affair, romance) percintaan 'love' (term of address) sayang(ku) (in tennis) kosong to make (general) membuat, (slang) membikin (= build) membangun (= create) mengadakan (= cause to become) menjadikan (= force) memaksakan to make it (= arrive safely); sampai dengan selamat; (= succeed) berhasil, mencapai cita-cita to make a noise ribut to make a fuss (= be fussy, hard to please) réwél to make haste bergesa-gesa to make love bercinta, bersanggama to make a mistake (= be wrong) salah to make off with (= abduct) melarikan; (= steal) mencuri
to make up (after a quarrel) rukun / damai lagi (= put on make-up) berdandan / merias (= concoct) mengarang / mengada-ada (= arrange) membéréskan / mengatur (for time lost) mengejar to make trouble menghasut to make trouble for (someone) membuat susah matter [noun] (= case, instance) hal, urusan (= substance) zat (= material) bahan (= article) barang (= question, problem) soal (= pus) nanah to matter (= be important) penting; (= be meaningful)
berarti it doesn't matter tidak apa-apa, tidak apalah no matter what mau tak mau no matter how bagaimana pun juga
no matter when kapan pun juga as matters stand,.. dalam keadaan begini.. as a matter of course (naturally) selayaknya in the matter of, re.. dalam hal.. to mean (= intend) bermaksud, berniat: to mean well
niatnya baik to mean (= signify, have meaning) berarti: What does this mean? Ini apa artinya? to mean (= destine) menakdirkan (= allot, assign) memperuntukkan to mean it (= be sincere, honest) bersungguh sungguh mean [adj.] (= stingy) pelit, kikir (= cruel) kejam (= humble, low, degraded) hina (= tricky) licik (= average) rata-rata means [noun] (= tool, device, implememt) alat (= method) cara: by fair means dengan cara yang jujur
by means of dengan / memakai by all means (= definitely) tentu saja by any means dengan cara apa saja by no means sama sekali tidak means of transport alat pengangkutan; by what means of transport? Naik apa? (= property, wealth) harta / kekayaan beyond one's means di luar kemampuannya much [adv.] (= a lot, many things) banyak: There is much to discuss. Ada banyak yang harus dibicarakan. as much as possible sebanyak mungkin, sebanyak-
banyaknya much too. jauh terlalu: This sauce is much too spicy. Sambal ini jauh terlalu pedas. twice as much dua kali lebih banyak so much, as much as this sekian not much tidak begitu: Do you like it? Not much. Apakah
kamu suka? Tidak begitu. very much sekali: He likes her very much. Dia suka
sekali padanya. much as. walaupun: Much as we tried, it still wasn't finished. Walaupun kita berusaha keras, namun belum selesai juga. (general) harus: Tap water has to (should) be boiled before it can be drank. Air keran harus direbus
sebelum diminum. You ought to haruslah! (= should have, but didn't) seharusnya (= without fail, for sure, certainly; stronger than harus) mesti: If the traffic's as blocked as this, we're sure to miss the plane. Kalau lalu lintas macet begini, kita
mesti ketinggalan pesawat. (= should be) semestinya as it should be seperti semestinya (= obligatory, required, compulsory) wajib: You must wear a safety belt. Wajib mengenakan sabuk pengaman. (= must have, very likely) pasti: He must have caught it from another child. Penyakit itu pasti ketularan dari
anak lain. See also need.
to need (something) membutuhkan (= require) memerlukan to need to (= have to, ought to, do something) perlu: I need to get to the shops. Saya perlu ke toko. (= should) harus: Do I need to wait? Apakah saya harus
menunggu? No need (= it's not necessary) tidak usah: There's no need to pay. Tidak usah membayar. need [noun] kebutuhan / keperluan: He has few needs.
Kebutuhannya tidak banyak. the need for, (= necessity) perlunya: It is not yet clear whether it is necessary to get medicine. Perlunya mencari obat belum jelas. No (answer to question) tidak (coll. nggak) (= not any) tidak (plus verb and noun): I have no money Saya tidak punya uang. There's no time. Tidak ada
waktu. No longer (= no more, not any more) (sudah) tidak.. lagi: It's no longer raining / not raining any more. Tidak
hujan lagi. No (= not a) bukan: This is no goat! Ini bukan kambing! No way! (= impossible) Tak mungkin! No (= forbidden) dilarang: No entry. Dilarang masuk. no good (= bad) kurang baik (= a pity) sayang: That's no good! Sayanglah! no go (= will not go ahead) tidak jadi no one (= nobody) tidak seorang pun No worries! Oké! Bérés! to be off (a race) mulai (= don't like any more) tidak suka lagi (= going bad, rotten) busuk (= cancelled) dibatalkan (= taken off, clothes) dibuka, dilepas, ditanggalkan (= turned off, switch) mati, dimatikan (= loose, e.g. button) lepas a day off hari libur, tidak masuk on and off sebentar-sebentar
well off makmur, mampu; badly off miskin off-colour (= not feeling well) kurang énak badan; (= blue) cabul sedikit off-duty bébas tugas off-season musim sepi off-the-cuff (= spontaneously) secara spontan off-the-record secara tidak resmi on (location) di on top of di atas on the right di sebelah kanan on the plane di dalam pesawat on (time) pada on Sunday pada hari Minggu on (a date) pada tanggal.. on time pada waktunya on that occasion pada kesempatan itu Other idioms: on the condition that dengan syarat
on condition (= provided) asal on the initiative of atas prakarsa on the authority of atas kuasa on behalf of untuk, atas nama on (= after) sesudah / setelah: On arriving in Semarang,.. Sesudah tiba di Semarang.. on and off (= from time to time) sewaktu-waktu on and on (= continuously) terus-menerus on the spur of the moment (= suddenly) secara mendadak on the point of (= about to) sebentar lagi / hampir akan on the subject of tentang/mengenai: Congratulations on
selamat atas on the program di acara on the TV / radio di TV / radio on this number di nomor ini on the phone sedang menélepon, sedang bicara on edge (= anxious, jumpy) cemas / senéwen on the contrary sebaliknya one [numeral] satu the [adj.] one yang: the younger one yang lebih muda
one or other salah satu, (person) salah seorang one day. pada suatu hari one (somebody) seorang not one (of them) satu pun / seorang pun tidak.. as one (= all together) serentak at one (= agreed, in harmony) setuju to become one, act as one bersatu one by one, one at a time satu demi satu, satu-satu the only one satu-satunya one and all semuanya / semua orang one and only unik, satu-satunya one day (in future) kapan-kapan, suatu hari one or two satu dua the one (= same) sama, se-: from the one village dari
desa yang sama / sedesa dengan only saja (after the word modified): He only eats vegetables. Dia makan sayuran saja. Hanya (before the word modified): Adults only.
Hanya orang dewasa.
Hanya. saja (both, for more emphasis): There is only one. Hanya ada satu saja. only [adv.] baru (= just; with prospect of change): Their child is only five. Anaknya baru lima ta-hun. (but will get older) Cuma (= just; no expectation of change): It only costs a thousand. Harganya cuma seribu. Cuma (= but, except): You can play here, only don't be too noisy. Boleh main-main di sini, cuma jangan
terlalu ramai. the only one satu-satunya an only child anak tunggal If only! (= imagine how nice it would be!) Bayang-kan
enaknya.. Andaikan (saja).. to order (= place an order) memesan an order pesanan on order sedang dipesan to order menurut pesanan to order (= give an order, command) memerintah (= tell, instruct, direct) menyuruh
an order perintah by order of atas perintah in order, in good order bérés, rapi out of order rusak / tidak beroperasi in order (= proper) patut in order (= succession) dalam urutan order tata tertib, ketenteraman in order to supaya / agar order (= regime) orde (=
arrangement, system, pattern) tata (in compounds, e.g. tata cara etiquette, protocol)
other lain others (= other people) orang lain the others lainnya some, others, ada yang., ada yang some other time lain kali saja on the other hand sebaliknya / di pihak lain the other day belum lama ini
one after the other satu demi satu among other things antara lain and others (= et cetera) dan lain-lainnya (dll.) in another place (= elsewhere) di lain tempat other times, other manners lain dulu, lain seka-rang to go out keluar to get out (= escape) melepaskan diri (= disembark) turun to take out membawa keluar to throw out membuang to send out mengirimkan (= emit) mengeluarkan to sort out (= arrange) mengatur to put out (a fire) memadamkan to help out menolong / membantu to be out (= not at home) sedang pergi / tidak ada di
rumah out of (= none left) kehabisan / tidak ada
out of (= made of, from) dari out of (= because of) karena out to it (= unconscious) tidak sadar / pingsan out of town di luar kota out of order (= not working) rusak out of the way (= isolated) terpencil Out of the (my) way! (= move aside) Minggir! over (= above) di atas over (= more than) lebih / ke atas / léwat over here di sebelah sini over there di sana / di sebelah sana over (during the period of) selama over the road di seberang jalan to cross over menyeberang to be over (= finished, ended) selesai / berakhir to be over it (= better, recovered) sembuh / pulih to be over the moon (= very happy) luar biasa senang
to do it over (= repeat) mengulangi
to think it over (= consider) menimbang / memikirkan to move over (= shift) bergésér to stay over (= spend the night) menginap over the hill (= old) lanjut usia overseas di luar negeri to please (= make happy, content) menyenangkan; (= satisfy) memuaskan pleased senang / puas pleasing menyenangkan; (= interesting) me-narik; (= pleasant, to hear, see) enak didengar / dilihat hard to please (= fussy, choosy) réwél As you please! (= please yourself) Sesuka ha-timu! Please! (inviting someone to do something) sila-kan! (do something for me) tolong. (formal) harap (would you please, be so kind as to) sudilah; (would you please) minta (kindly, formal) mohon
polite (= civil, courteous, correct) sopan (= refined) halus (= ethical, decorous, correct) sopan-santun (= proper, fitting, in good taste) pantas (= with good manners, cultured) beradab possible, possibly mungkin impossible, out of the question tidak mungkin very possible mungkin sekali quite possibly kemungkinan besar How is it possible? Mana mungkin! Masa! as soon as possible secepat, selekas mungkin to the fullest extent possible sedapat-dapatnya, sebisa-
bisanya to put (= place, lay) menaruh (= assign a place, locate, deploy) menempatkan (= lay, place, put down) meletakkan
(a question) mengajukan pertanyaan (= express, put in words) mengungkapkan (= estimate, guess at) menaksir to put aside menyisihkan to put away (= save up, store) menyimpan to put down (= despise, hold in contempt) menghi-nakan to put forward (= suggest, offer, propose) menge-
mukakan to put on (clothes) mengenakan pakaian, berbaju; (weight) bertambah gemuk to put out (fire) memadamkan api / kebakaran to put together (= collect) mengumpulkan; (=compile)
menyusun to put up with (= be able to bear, endure) tahan rather (= quite, somewhat) agak: This book is rather boring. Buku ini agak membosankan. (= quite, a lot) cukup: He's rather arrogant. Cukup
sombong orangnya. (= to prefer; would sooner) lebih suka: I'd rather just stay
home. Saya lebih suka tinggal di rumah saja. (= rather than, instead of) daripada
to remember ([intrans.], = to be mindful) ingat (= to be mindful of) ingat akan ([trans.], = to recall, recollect, keep in mind) meng-ingat (= to have suddenly come to mind) teringat (= to commemorate) memperingati (=
to convey greetings) menyampaikan salam: Remember me to your little sister. Sampaikan salam
kepada adikmu. (= to not forget) jangan lupa: Remember to lock the door. Jangan lupa mengunci pintu. so (= very) sekali / sangat: I'm so tired. Saya capai sekali. so (= like that) begitu: Of course it's so. Mémang begitu. so (= as a result, consequently) jadi..
so (= also) juga: So am I. Saya juga. so (= true) benar: It's not so. Tidak benar. and so,, maka, .. so that (purpose) supaya so. that (degree) begitu.sehingga the so-called yang dinamakan so-and-so si anu so-so lumayan So what? lantas? terus? it so happened that. kebetulan.. so far (= till now) sampai sekarang / selama ini So long! (= see you later) Sampai jumpa! (Note: sometimes no separate translation.) some (= a little, a certain quantity) sedikit: Do you want some sambal with that? Mau pakai sambal sedikit?; I've already got some. Sudah ada. some (= several, a few) beberapa: some kilos of rice
beberapa kilo beras some., others. ada yang. ada yang.: Some are old,
others are young Ada yang tua, ada yang muda some (indefinite) some. or other: some person or other
orang entah siapa some day (in future) kapan-kapan at some length agak lama at some distance agak jauh someone, somebody seseorang, ada orang somehow bagaimana pun juga (= approximately) kurang lebih: some ten kilometres
kurang lebih sepuluh kilo. somewhere di salah satu tempat / entah di mana: She left her keys somewhere. Kuncinya keting-galan, entah di mana. to stand ([intrans.], = stand erect) berdiri (= be there) berada (= able to bear) bertahan (= continue to be valid) berlaku as things stand,. dalam keadaan begini,. to stand aside meminggir / mengundurkan diri
to stand back mundur to stand by (= be ready) bersiap / siap-siaga to stand for (= mean) berarti (= to allow) membiarkan / memboléhkan to stand in for (= replace) mengganti to stand on (= insist) menuntut to stand out (= excel) menonjol to stand over (= threaten) mengancam to stand up (= rise) berdiri to say (= tell) bilang: Who says I'm stingy? Siapa bilang
saya pelit / kikir? to say (= speak) berkata to say (= state, tell) mengatakan (with object, or bahwa, that.) he said katanya: What did he say? Apa katanya? it is said, they say kata orang / kabarnya / konon the said (= aforementioned) tersebut a say (= voice) suara: a say in the decision suara dalam
it goes without saying (= it is quite clear) sudah cukup
jelas to say the word memberi ijin / perintah there's no saying tak mungkin diramalkan when all's said and done pada akhir perhitungan a saying (= proverb) pepatah / peribahasa it seems (= the appearance of it is.) rupanya it seems (= the feeling of it is.) rasanya it seems (= apparently) kelihatannya / nampaknya /
rupa-rupanya it seems to me (= in my opinion) pada hémat saya, pada
pendapat saya.. it seems to be (= to have the look of, but not in fact) kelihatannya it seems to be (= it is as if) seolah-olah to set (= place, put) menaruh (= a clock, trap etc.) memasang (= fix, determine) menentukan (the table) mengatur
([intrans.], the sun) terbenam to set apart mengasingkan / menjauhkan to set aside (= save, money) menyimpan / menabung; (= put on the side) mengesampingkan to set back (turn back, clock) mengundurkan to set down (in writing) menuliskan; (= put down, place) meletakkan; (= disembark passengers)
menurunkan to set off (= leave) berangkat to set up (= arrange, establish) mengadakan /
mendirikan to set out (= leave) berangkat; (= display) memamérkan set (adj.) (= fixed) tetap set (= ready) siap sure 1. (= certain, positive, determined, proven); 2. (= for sure, surely, no doubt, certainly, of course)
pasti Also for a person: I'm sure. Saya pasti. But: I'm not too sure. Kurang tahu saya. There's sure to be another chance. Pasti ada
kesempatan lain. For sure! Sure! Tentu! Tentu saja! surely (= certainly) tentunya (cf. not necessarily belum
tentu) to be sure of (= confident, certain, positive, convinced) yakin: sure of her love Yakin akan cin-tanya sure enough (= it turns out that) ternyata / nya-tanya to take (= get, fetch) mengambil; (= escort) meng-antar to take away mengambil; (= subtract) mengurangi; (= remove) menghilangkan to take off (aircraft) tinggal landas; (clothes) membuka to take up (= collect) mengumpulkan; (an offer) menerima; (space) mengambil; (topic) membi-
carakan to take in (= trick) menipu to take after (= resemble) menyerupai / mirip dengan to take along membawa (serta) to take back (= withdraw) menarik kembali to take down (= note) mencatat
to take for (= guess) mengira to
take out mengeluarkan; (money from account) mengambil; (= extract, tooth) mencabut
to take up with bergaul dengan to take it (= bear it) tahan to talk bicara (more formal: berbicara) (= to have a chat) bercakap (= chat, converse) ngomong to talk about (= discuss) membicarakan to talk back (= dispute) membantah to talk into (= persuade) membujuk talk [noun] (= lecture) ceramah; (= rumours) desas-
desus, kabar burung talks (= discussions) pembicaraan / négosiasi idle talk, nonsense omong kosong to give a talking-to, talk like a Dutch uncle mencaci-maki /
memarahi to talk big menyombongkan diri
to tell (= say) bilang: Don't tell anyone! Jangan bilang,
ya! to tell (= inform) memberitahukan to tell ([trans.], = narrate) menceritakan; ([intrans.],= tell a story) bercerita to tell (= order) menyuruh to tell (= state) mengatakan to tell (= know) tahu: How can I tell? Bagaimana saya
bisa tahu? to tell (= distinguish) mengenali to tell (the difference) membedakan to tell on (= make a complaint about) mengadu-kan to tell off (= reprimand) menegur to tell tales (= gossip) bergunjing to tell the time melihat jam You're telling me! Tak usah bilang! all told (= taking account of everything) kalau dihitung
semuanya See also say.
that, those [demonstrative] itu: That becak's wrecked.
Bécak itu rusak. that, those ([pron.]: one, thing) itu: That's very important. Itu tidak begitu penting.
that ([conj.], after verbs of saying etc.) bahwa: The lecturer said that his marks were excellent. Bu dosén
mengatakan bahwa angkanya bagus. that (after adjectives): zero, or karena It's a pity that we can't meet again. Sayang kita tidak bisa ketemu sekali lagi. amazed that héran karena disappointed that kecéwa karena happy that senang karena sad that sedih karena that perhaps, lest, in case kalau-kalau: She was afraid (that) there might be a cockroach in the bathroom. Dia
takut kalau-kalau ada coro dalam kamar mandinya. so that supaya / agar like that, that way begitu That's it! (the end of the matter) Habis perkara!
In most positions, no translation, e.g. the State negara the middle class golongan tengah on the edge of the river di tebing sungai But in other places, when specific, not general: itu There's a bird's nest in the mango tree. Ada sa-rang burung
di dalam pohon mangga itu. at the time pada waktu itu the rich (= rich people) orang kaya the .. one(s) yang: the first (one) yang pertama; the last (one) yang terakhir the. the. makin. makin: the more the merrier makin
banyak makin ramai the (a language) bahasa: borrowed from the Sanskrit dipinjam dari bahasa Sanskreta there is / are (= exist) ada to be there (= present) hadir to be there (= at home) ada di rumah there (= that place) situ; (= in that place) di situ there (= that place over there, more distant) sana; (= in
that place) di sana; (= to that place) ke sana to be there (= arrive) sampai / tiba (di tujuan): Are we there yet? Sudah sampai belum? There you are! (= that's it) Itu dia! there comes a time to. tibalah waktunya untuk thing (= object) benda thing (= matter, case) hal: And another thing,. Dan hal
lain lagi. thing (= problem, question, matter) soal: There's another thing that needs to be thought about. Ada soal lagi
yang perlu dipikirkan things (= luggage) barang-barang things (= clothes) pakaian things (= tools) alat-alat things (= the situation) keadaan: Things are looking up! Keadaannya membaik!; How are things?
Bagaimana kabarnya? The thing is, . Soalnya,.. the . thing (adjective + -nya): The main thing is, ..
the funny thing is, . Anehnya, .. it's not the thing to do (= not polite) tidak pantas Just the thing! Ini dia! Tepat yang diinginkan! to think (= reflect, muse) berpikir to think things over berpikir-pikir to think about (someone or something) memikir-kan to think (= have occur to one) terpikir to think of (= hold an opinion about) berpendapat tentang without thinking tanpa dipikir to think aloud berpikir dengan suara keras to think back to mengenang to think better of (= regret) menyesal; (= repent) tobat to think big mempunyai cita-cita tinggi to think nothing of memberanikan diri / menganggap
mudah to think out memecah masalah to think over mempertimbangkan to think through memikirkan masak-masak
to think up mencari akal time (= o'clock) jam (formal: pukul): What time is it? Jam
berapa? time (general) waktu: I have no time! Tidak ada waktu! at that time pada waktu itu right on time tepat pada waktunya from time to time sewaktu-waktu / kadang-ka-dang at the same time pada waktu yang sama / seka-ligus time (= occasion) kali: every time setiap kali time after time (= repeatedly) berkali-kali time (= period, era) jaman (formal: zaman): in the time of the VOC Pada jaman VOC any time kapan saja all the time (= always) selalu at no time (= never) tak pernah for the time being untuk sementara to take one's time (= not rush) dengan santai /tidak
terburu-buru to take time out (= have a break, rest) beristira-hat
time off (= a holiday) libur in quick time cepat-cepat: All in good time! (= be patient)
Sabarlah dulu! to throw melémparkan (e.g. ball, stone); menyorotkan (light) to throw away (rubbish) membuang to throw down menjatuhkan to throw on (clothes) memakai (baju) dengan tergesa-
gesa to throw over (= abandon) meninggalkan to throw out (= evict) mengusir; (= reject) meno-lak to throw up (= vomit) muntah to throw a party mengadakan pésta to throw a fit bertingkah / menunjukkan émosi to (direction toward, a place) ke (to a person) kepada (talking to) dengan to (for, used for) untuk: money to buy food uang untuk
membeli makan to (up to, until, as far as) sampai to
(regarding, toward) terhadap: toward corruption sikap terhadap korupsi
to (= before the hour) kurang: a quarter to one jam satu
kurang seperempat in order to supaya NOTE: the 'to' of the English infinitive (e.g. 'to give') has no Indonesian translation. too (= excessive) terlalu: Your composition's too long.
Karanganmu terlalu panjang. That's too much! (= going too far) Terlalu! too (= also) juga: Their cat's fat too. Kucing mereka
juga gemuk. pun He feels sad too. Dia pun merasa sedih. too much (= in excess) lebih: This account's 100,000 too much. Rekening ini 100.000 lebih Too bad! Sayang sekali! all too soon terlalu cepat
to touch (= brush lightly against, come into contact with)
menyentuh to be touching, to touch each other bersentuhan to touch (= feel, handle) menjamah to touch (= grope, caress, fondle) meraba to touch (up)on (a subject) menyinggung to touch, be touching (the heart) mengharukan to get in touch with (= contact) menghubungi to keep in touch tetap berhubungan to touch down (= land, aircraft) mendarat true (= right, correct, according to fact) benar true (= genuine) sejati true (= exact) cocok true (= loyal) setia true (= actual) sebenarnya true (= real, not a lie) betul to come true (= be granted, wish) terkabul to be true to one's word mematuhi janji
It's true! (= not kidding) Betul! true to life (= according to the facts) sesuai dengan
kenyataan true to form = according to character) sesuai den-gan
wataknya to turn ([intrans.], in a certain direction) bélok (more formal: berbélok): to turn to the north bé-lok ke utara to turn ([intrans.], = go round, e.g. wheel) berpu-tar to turn (= become) menjadi: It turned sour. Men-jadi
pahit. to turn ([trans.], = turn over) membalik: to turn the page
membalik halaman to turn (records, tapes) memutar to turn (the face) memalingkan to turn (= point something in a direction) menga-rahkan to turn back (= return) kembali / berbalik to turn down (= refuse) menolak to turn into (= become) berubah menjadi to turn off (tap) menutup; (electricity) memati-kan to turn on memasang / menghidupkan
to turn out (= end) berakhir to turn over membalikkan; (in bed) berguling to turn up (= increase sound) membesarkan; (= appear)
muncul a turn giliran; to take turns bergiliran to turn the stomach memualkan to understand mengerti (= to comprehend the meaning of) memahami (= to be understood, intended) dimaksudkan (= to hear, be informed) menangkap (= to interpret as) mengartikan / menafsirkan up (= in an upward direction) ke atas to go up naik up the hill naik bukit up to the top sampai ke atas up in the sky (tinggi) di langit up the street (= at the end of the street) di ujung jalan; (=
along the street) sepanjang jalan to add up menghitung it doesn't add up (= not correct) tidak cocok to give up menyerah it's up to you terserah Time's up! Waktunya habis! What are you up to (= doing) these days? Sedang apa
sekarang? to walk up and down (= back and forth) mondar-mandir to get up (from sleeping or lying down) bangun; (from sitting) berdiri up the pole (= crazy) sinting very sangat (placed before word very satisfactory sangat memuaskan
very sekali (placed after word modified): very sweet
manis sekali very (superlative) ter-: the very best yang terbaik very (emphatic) juga: that very day hari itu juga very (exact) tepat: his very words katanya persis
not very tidak begitu Very well! Baiklah! to do one's very best berusaha sebaik-baiknya the very first pertama-tama at the very most paling banyak / sebanyak-ban-yaknya at the very least paling sedikit / sekurang-kurang-nya to want to mau (also: willing; going to): What do you want (to do)? Mau apa? ingin (= wish, desire, would like to): I want to see that film.
Saya ingin menonton film itu. to want (= require, need) membutuhkan: Wanted, a nightwatchman Dibutuhkan, seorang jaga malam to want (= ask) minta: How much do you want for that bike? Minta berapa untuk sepéda itu? to want (= desire, wish for, long for) mengingin-kan: The lecturer wants her students to make good progress with their language study. Bu dosén menginginkan
supaya mahasiswanya maju dalam studi bahasa meréka. to want (= wish for, desire, have in view) menghendaki,
undesirable tidak dihendaki wants [noun] kebutuhan for want of (= lacking) karena kekurangan wanting (= missing, lacking, not enough) kurang way (general) jalan; (= street, road) jalan, Jl.); (= method)
cara in a .. way secara: in a regular / orderly way secara
teratur all the way ( = completely) sepenuhnya / sampai selesai by way of (= via) léwat / melalui to get one's way mendapat apa yang diingini to get in the way (= obstruct) menghalangi / merintangi
jalan to give way (= surrender) mengalah / menyerah; (= collapse) ambruk to go one's own way menurut kemauan sendiri to go out of one's way merépotkan diri / bersusah-
payah in a way (= somewhat) sedikit banyak
in no way (= not at all) tidak..sama sekali to know one's way around tahu jalan / mengerti seluk-
beluk to lead the way memimpin / merintis jalan to look the other way (= pretend not to know) pura-pura
tidak tahu to lose one's way tersesat to make one's way (= advance) berhasil maju / naik
pangkat to make way for melapangkan / membuka jalan untuk out of the way (= isolated) terpencil to see one's way (clear) to mendapat kesempatan to stand in the way of menghalangi / menentang under way dalam perjalanan (journey, voyage); sedang dikerjakan (project, work) ways (= customs) adat-istiadat / kebiasaan ways and means akal dan siasat a long way off jauh (distance); masih lama (time) way ahead jauh di muka way off (= very inaccurate) salah benar / berselisih
banyak way out in the country jauh di pedésaan / di udik / di
pedalaman by the way,. ngomong-omong,.. Have it your own way! Terserah! Biarin! Seka-repmu! on the way (= going to happen) akan terjadi; (= going to be born) akan lahir to have a way (= special talent) with berbakat un-tuk on the way out (fashion) mulai tidak mode lagi the other way round (the reverse) sebaliknya Question words: when? kapan? (= at what time of day?) jam berapa? (= in what period?) jaman apa?: When was that? Jaman
apa itu? (= if) kalau: Ring me when you get home. Bel kalau sudah tiba di rumah. (= at the time, in the past) waktu / ketika: When I was young. Waktu saya masih muda (= at the moment when) saat: When I was about to board, I was called to Information. Saat saya mau naik ke
pesawat, saya dipanggil ke bagian Informasi. (= the time when) waktunya: That was the time when the Arts Faculty was still in the Wijilan (the residence of Prince Wijil). Itu waktunya Fakultas Sastra masih di
Wijilan. Question word: where (= in which place?) di mana? (= to which place?) ke mana? Relative: where tempat, di mana: She visited the house where she was born. Dia berkunjung ke rumah
tempat dia lahir. Question word: which (= which one, out of several?) yang mana?: Which one do you want? Mau ambil yang
mana? Relative: which (= that) yang: I want a book which has photos. Saya mau buku yang ada foto. Conjunction: (used to join two sentences which have the same subject) sambil: .he said while laughing
.katanya sambil tertawa (= during the time that) sementara / selagi: While the
teacher wrote, the pupils made notes. Sementara pak
guru menulis, murid-murid membuat catatan. (= whereas, joining two sentences with different subjects, expressing a contrast) sedangkan: Indonesian rice tastes nice, while Australian rice doesn't. Nasi di
Indonesia énak, sedangkan nasi Australia kurang énak. while [noun] (= a period of time) for a while beberapa waktu a little while sebentar in a while sebentar lagi once in a while sekali-sekali / kadang-kadang a while ago beberapa waktu lalu to be worthwhile (= useful, beneficial) bermanfaat /
berfaedah / bernilai while [verb] to while away the time menghabis-kan waktu
/ bermalas-malas will [future tense] akan We'll meet tonight. Kita akan
bertemu nanti malam. It's going to rain. Akan hujan. Not likely! (= not going to happen) Tidak akan! Also 'will have' akan: We will have paid it off in another six
months. Akan kita lunasi enam bulan lagi. NOTE: 'would' is past tense of 'will', and also a conditional, indicating the consequence of an imagined event: also akan. We would have paid too much, if you hadn't told us this. Kita akan membayar terlalu
banyak, kalau anda tidak memberitahu. Mau (= want to): The engine won't start. Mesinnya tak mau hidup. 'Would' in polite requests:Also
‘will have’ akan: We will have paid it off in Would you please.. tolong / minta / mohon / silakan: Would you please be seated. Silakan duduk.
In plain requests: ..would you ., ya: Wash these clothes, would you?
Pakaian ini dicuci, ya? Will do! Baiklah! / Oké! with (= together with) dengan (= by means of) dengan
Ber-: with white hair berambut putih. with pleasure dengan senang hati with white hair berambut putih
with respect/regard to mengenai with the exception of terkecuali to have nothing to do with tidak berurusan dengan to do (something) with (something) Diapakan? What do you do with it? with all one's strength sekuat-kuatnya coffee with milk kopi susu to work (at a job) bekerja to work (= go) jalan: My watch isn't working. Jamku tidak
jalan. to work (= make move) menggerakkan to work (= be effective) mujarab: The medicine works.
Obat itu mujarab. to work on/at mengerjakan to work off (debt) melunasi dengan bekerja to work on (= influence) mempengaruhi to work out (a puzzle) memecahkan (= determine) menentukan (= exercise) berolahraga
to work it out (= understand) mengerti out of work (= be unemployed) menganggur a work (artistic, scholarly) karya the works (machine, engine) mesin to be worked up bergairah
Translations Please note that the following translations are only suggestions - other wordings may be possible as well. An example is the use of tense; for the earlier lessons we use present tense, and then switch to the past tense, to indicate what happened at a particular time.
Listening Comprehension These are the transcripts for the Listening Comprehension passages found in each lesson's Exercise B.
Glossary of Key Grammatical Terms Abilitative: a verb with the prefix ter- that indicates that the actor has the ability to perform the action Abstract noun: a noun that refers to an abstract quality
Accidental: a verb with the prefix ter- that refers to an unintended, agentless action Active: a verb is said to be active when its subject is the one who performs the action; the opposite of passive
Adjective: a word which refers to a characteristic of a thing or person Adverb: an adjunct to a verb or an adjective which tells us how or when Affixation: the process of attaching affixes to a baseword
Agent: the person or thing that performs the action of the verb
Base-word: the part of a word which carries the essential meaning and to which affixes are attached
Benefactive: a type of verb with the suffix -kan which expresses performing the action on behalf of someone
Causative: a type of verb which expresses bringing about a certain outcome Cardinal number: a number which is used in counting Classifier: a word which precedes a noun in order to place it in a particular class Clause: a unit or group of words below the sentence, containing a subject and a predicate and introduced by a conjunction Comparative: refers to an adjective that indicates possessing the quality concerned to a higher degree ('more') Complement: a word which adds to or completes the meaning of another Conjunction: a word that joins two clauses
Demonstrative: a group of pronouns that point to position: 'this (here), that (there)'
Doubling: a process by which a new word is formed on the basis of another by doubling it First person: a group of pronouns that refer to the speaker
Foregrounding: a process whereby a word or word-group is placed at the beginning of a sentence in order to receive more attention
Intransitive: refers to a verb that does not have an object Locative: refers to a verb with the suffix -i and an object which is a place Modal word: a word in the predicate placed before the verb which refers to concepts such as ability or necessity Nominalization: the process whereby a verb or an adjective is enabled to function as a noun
Noun: a word that refers to a thing, person or concept Ordinal number: a number that indicates where something comes in a sequence Passive: a form of the verb where the subject undergoes the action of the verb; the opposite of active Predicate: that part of the sentence which tells us about the subject
Prefix: an affix which is attached to the front of the baseword
Preposition: a word preceding a noun or pronoun and forming a word-group with it which provides information regarding the predicate
Pronoun: a word that stands for a noun; can be first, second or third person
Reciprocal: a form of the verb in which the actors perform the action 'to each other'
Reduplication See doubling Relative pronoun: a pronoun that refers back to an antecedent and attaches a clause to it Second person: a group of pronouns that refer to the person spoken to
Split subject: a subject made up of a word-group which is split, and part of it placed at the beginning of the sentence in order to receive more attention Stative: a group of words with the prefix ter- which indicate a state
Subject: that part of the sentence which indicates what is being spoken about Suffix: an affix which is attached to the end of the baseword
Superlative: refers to an adjective which indicates possessing a quality to the highest degree ('most') Syllable: a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, and forming all or part of a word Tense: with verbs, the indication of the time when the action occurs
Third person: a group of pronouns that refer to the person spoken about
Transitive: refers to a verb that has, or can have, an object
Table of Contents Cover Copyright Contents Foreword Introduction LESSON 1: Getting to Know Each Other LESSON 2: At the Campus LESSON 3: Lectures LESSON 4: At the Mall LESSON 5: Prices LESSON 6: What Time? LESSON 7: Where? LESSON 8: In the Street LESSON 9: Buying a Fan LESSON 10: Clothes LESSON 11: In the Kampong LESSON 12: Law Lectures LESSON 13: The Poor LESSON 14: Smoking
LESSON 15: The Taman Mini LESSON 16: TV Dramas LESSON 17: Visit to an Expat Family LESSON 18: The Interview LESSON 19: What Will We Watch? LESSON 20: Twilight in Jakarta LESSON 21: Going to the Doctor LESSON 22: International Relations LESSON 23: A Trip to Yogyakarta LESSON 24: To the Market LESSON 25: National Days LESSON 26: Wall Lizards LESSON 27: Demonstrations LESSON 28: The Secret Trumpet Appendix How do you say it in Indonesian? Translations Listening Comprehension Glossary of Key Grammatical Terms Back Cover
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